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Table B.4.06. Trends in the percentage of unemployed 25-64 year-olds, by country and educational attainment: 1997-2008

Country Educational attainment 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008
OECD average Below upper secondary 10.1 9.4 9.3 9.0 8.7 9.4 9.7 10.3 10.5 10.0 9.1 8.7
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.7 6.5 6.1 5.7 5.5 5.9 6.1 6.3 6.0 5.5 4.9 4.9
  Tertiary education 4.1 4.0 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.7 4.0 4.1 3.8 3.5 3.4 3.2
                           
OECD countries                          
Australia Below upper secondary 9.6 9.0 8.4 7.5 7.6 7.5 7.0 6.2 6.3 5.6 5.1 5.2
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.1 5.8 5.1 4.5 4.7 4.3 4.3 3.9 3.4 3.8 3.0 2.6
  Tertiary education 3.5 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.1 3.3 3.0 2.8 2.5 2.3 2.2 2.1
Austria Below upper secondary 6.6 6.8 5.9 6.2 6.2 6.7 7.8 7.8 8.6 7.9 7.4 6.3
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 3.3 3.7 3.2 2.9 3.0 3.4 3.4 3.8 3.9 3.7 3.3 2.9
  Tertiary education 2.5 1.9 1.8 1.5 1.5 1.8 2.0 2.9 2.6 2.5 2.4 1.7
Belgium Below upper secondary 12.5 13.1 12.0 9.8 8.5 10.3 10.7 11.7 12.4 12.3 11.3 10.8
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.7 7.4 6.6 5.3 5.5 6.0 6.7 6.9 6.9 6.7 6.2 5.7
  Tertiary education 3.3 3.2 3.1 2.7 2.7 3.5 3.5 3.9 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.2
Canada Below upper secondary 12.9 11.9 10.8 10.2 10.5 11.0 10.9 10.2 9.8 9.3 9.5 9.1
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 8.1 7.5 6.7 5.9 6.3 6.7 6.5 6.2 5.9 5.6 5.4 5.5
  Tertiary education 5.4 4.7 4.5 4.1 4.7 5.1 5.2 4.8 4.6 4.1 3.9 4.1
Chile Below upper secondary 4.6 5.2
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.0 6.6
  Tertiary education 6.0 5.5
                           
Czech Republic Below upper secondary 12.1 14.5 18.8 19.3 19.2 18.8 18.3 23.0 24.4 22.3 19.1 17.3
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 3.4 4.6 6.5 6.7 6.2 5.6 6.0 6.4 6.2 5.5 4.3 3.3
  Tertiary education 1.2 1.9 2.6 2.5 2.0 1.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.2 1.5 1.5
Denmark Below upper secondary 7.0 7.0 6.9 6.2 6.4 6.7 8.2 6.5 5.5 4.2 3.5
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.6 4.1 3.9 3.7 3.7 4.4 4.8 4.0 2.7 2.5 2.2
  Tertiary education 3.3 3.0 3.0 3.6 3.9 4.7 4.4 3.7 3.2 2.9 2.3
Finland Below upper secondary 15.6 13.8 13.1 12.1 11.4 12.2 11.2 11.3 10.7 10.1 8.9 8.1
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 11.9 10.6 9.5 8.9 8.5 8.8 8.3 7.9 7.4 7.0 6.1 5.4
  Tertiary education 6.5 5.8 4.7 4.7 4.4 4.5 4.1 4.5 4.4 3.7 3.6 3.3
France Below upper secondary 15.0 14.9 15.3 13.9 11.9 11.8 10.4 10.7 11.1 11.0 10.2 9.8
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 9.6 9.6 9.2 7.9 6.9 6.8 6.6 6.7 6.6 6.6 6.0 5.6
  Tertiary education 7.0 6.6 6.1 5.1 4.8 5.2 5.3 5.7 5.4 5.1 4.9 4.0
Germany Below upper secondary 15.4 15.4 15.9 13.9 13.5 15.3 18.0 20.4 20.2 19.9 18.0 16.5
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 9.9 10.3 8.8 8.1 8.2 9.0 10.2 11.2 11.0 9.9 8.3 7.2
  Tertiary education 5.7 5.5 5.0 4.2 4.2 4.5 5.2 5.6 5.5 4.8 3.8 3.3
                           
Greece Below upper secondary 6.5 7.7 8.8 8.2 8.2 7.8 7.2 8.7 8.3 7.2 7.0 6.8
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 9.6 10.7 11.5 11.2 10.4 10.5 10.1 10.0 9.6 8.9 8.2 7.2
  Tertiary education 7.3 6.8 8.0 7.5 7.2 6.8 6.5 7.4 7.1 6.3 6.1 5.7
Hungary Below upper secondary 12.6 11.4 11.1 9.9 10.0 10.5 10.6 10.8 12.4 14.8 16.0 17.3
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.9 6.2 5.8 5.3 4.6 4.4 4.8 5.0 6.0 6.1 5.9 6.3
  Tertiary education 1.7 1.7 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.5 1.4 1.9 2.3 2.2 2.6 2.3
Iceland Below upper secondary 4.4 3.2 2.0 2.6 2.6 3.2 3.3 2.5 2.3 2.5
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 2.7
  Tertiary education
Ireland Below upper secondary 14.5 11.6 9.2 5.6 5.2 5.9 6.3 6.1 6.0 5.7 6.1 8.2
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.5 4.5 3.5 2.3 2.4 2.8 2.9 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.5 4.8
  Tertiary education 4.0 3.0 1.7 1.6 1.8 2.2 2.6 2.2 2.0 2.2 2.3 3.0
Italy Below upper secondary 10.8 10.6 10.0 9.2 9.0 8.8 8.2 7.8 6.9 6.3 7.4
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 8.1 7.9 7.2 6.6 6.4 6.1 5.4 5.2 4.6 4.1 4.6
  Tertiary education 6.9 6.9 5.9 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.7 4.8 4.2 4.3
                           
Japan Below upper secondary 3.9 4.3 5.6 6.0 5.9
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 3.4 3.3 4.4 4.7 4.8 5.6 5.7 5.1 4.9 4.5 4.1 4.4
  Tertiary education 2.3 2.6 3.3 3.5 3.1 3.8 3.7 3.3 3.1 3.0 2.9 3.1
Korea Below upper secondary 1.4 6.0 5.4 3.7 3.1 2.2 2.2 2.6 2.9 2.6 2.4 2.5
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 2.4 6.8 6.4 4.1 3.6 3.0 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.3
  Tertiary education 2.3 4.9 4.7 3.6 3.5 3.2 3.1 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.6
Luxembourg Below upper secondary 3.4 3.1 1.7 3.8 3.3 5.7 5.1 4.9 4.1 4.8
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 1.1 1.4 1.0 1.2 2.6 3.7 3.2 3.8 2.8 4.9
  Tertiary education c c c 1.8 4.0 3.2 3.2 2.9 3.0 2.2
Mexico Below upper secondary 2.6 2.3 1.5 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 2.2 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.4
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.4 3.3 2.5 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.2 3.0 3.8 3.4 2.8 2.9
  Tertiary education 2.8 3.1 3.5 2.4 2.5 3.0 3.0 3.7 2.6 2.3 3.6 3.3
Netherlands Below upper secondary 0.9 4.3 3.9 2.9 3.0 4.5 5.5 5.8 4.8 4.0 3.4
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 1.7 2.3 2.3 1.6 2.0 2.8 3.8 4.1 3.5 2.7 2.1
  Tertiary education 1.7 1.9 1.2 2.1 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.3 1.8 1.6
                           
New Zealand Below upper secondary 7.6 8.9 7.8 6.6 5.8 5.0 4.4 3.8 3.5 3.2 3.1 3.7
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.4 5.1 5.0 4.0 3.8 3.6 3.5 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.0 2.6
  Tertiary education 3.5 4.0 3.7 3.3 2.8 3.2 3.1 2.7 2.3 2.4 2.2 2.4
Norway Below upper secondary 4.0 2.9 2.5 2.2 3.4 3.4 3.9 4.0 7.3 4.7 3.3 3.8
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 3.1 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.6 3.8 2.6 2.1 1.3 1.3
  Tertiary education 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.9 1.7 2.1 2.5 2.4 2.1 1.8 1.4 1.3
Poland Below upper secondary 13.8 13.9 16.4 20.6 22.6 25.2 25.9 27.8 27.1 21.5 15.5 11.5
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 9.9 9.1 10.7 13.9 15.9 17.8 17.8 17.4 16.6 12.7 8.7 6.3
  Tertiary education 2.1 2.5 3.1 4.3 5.0 6.3 6.6 6.2 6.2 5.0 3.8 3.1
Portugal Below upper secondary 4.4 4.0 3.6 3.6 4.4 5.7 6.4 7.5 7.6 8.0 7.6
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 5.1 4.5 3.5 3.3 4.4 5.3 5.6 6.7 7.1 6.8 6.6
  Tertiary education 2.8 3.1 2.7 2.8 3.9 4.9 4.4 5.4 5.4 6.6 5.8
Slovak Republic Below upper secondary 22.4 24.3 30.3 36.3 38.7 42.3 44.9 47.7 49.2 44.0 41.3 36.3
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 8.5 8.8 11.9 14.3 14.8 14.2 13.5 14.6 12.7 10.0 8.5 7.4
  Tertiary education 2.8 3.3 4.0 4.6 4.2 3.6 3.7 4.8 4.4 2.6 3.3 3.1
                           
Spain Below upper secondary 18.9 17.0 14.7 13.7 10.2 11.2 11.3 11.0 9.3 9.0 9.0 13.2
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 16.8 15.3 12.9 10.9 8.4 9.4 9.5 9.4 7.3 6.9 6.8 9.3
  Tertiary education 13.7 13.1 11.1 9.5 6.9 7.7 7.7 7.3 6.1 5.5 4.8 5.8
Sweden Below upper secondary 11.9 10.4 9.0 8.0 5.9 5.8 6.1 6.5 8.5 7.3 7.0 7.1
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 9.4 7.8 6.5 5.3 4.6 4.6 5.2 5.8 6.0 5.1 4.2 4.1
  Tertiary education 5.2 4.4 3.9 3.0 2.6 3.0 3.9 4.3 4.5 4.2 3.4 3.3
Switzerland Below upper secondary 6.0 5.7 4.7 4.8 3.4 4.3 5.9 7.1 7.2 7.5 6.7 6.0
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 3.1 2.9 2.5 2.2 2.1 2.4 3.2 3.7 3.7 3.3 3.0 2.9
  Tertiary education 4.4 2.8 1.7 1.4 1.3 2.2 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.2 2.1 1.8
Turkey Below upper secondary 4.4 4.4 5.3 4.6 6.7 8.5 8.8 8.1 8.7 8.3 8.6 9.6
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 6.3 6.6 8.2 5.5 7.4 8.7 7.8 10.1 9.2 9.0 9.1 9.3
  Tertiary education 3.9 4.8 5.1 3.9 4.7 7.5 6.9 8.2 6.9 6.9 6.8 7.3
United Kingdom Below upper secondary 8.4 7.5 7.1 6.6 6.1 6.0 5.2 5.3 5.1 6.3 6.5 6.2
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 5.5 4.4 4.4 4.0 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.3 3.1 3.8 3.9 3.7
  Tertiary education 3.1 2.6 2.6 2.1 2.0 2.4 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.0
                           
United States Below upper secondary 10.4 8.5 7.7 7.9 8.1 10.2 9.9 10.5 9.0 8.3 8.5 10.1
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 4.8 4.5 3.7 3.6 3.8 5.7 6.1 5.6 5.1 4.6 4.5 5.3
  Tertiary education 2.3 2.1 2.1 1.8 2.1 3.0 3.4 3.3 2.6 2.5 2.1 2.4
                           
Non-OECD countries                          
Brazil Below upper secondary 5.6 4.7
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 7.0 6.1
  Tertiary education 3.3 3.3
Estonia Below upper secondary 19.0 14.8 15.4 13.0 11.7 8.6 9.7
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 10.5 9.5 9.5 8.4 5.7 4.6 5.2
  Tertiary education 5.8 6.5 5.0 3.8 3.2 2.4 2.8
Israel Below upper secondary 14.0 15.2 15.6 14.0 12.8 12.4 9.8
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 9.8 10.3 10.6 9.5 8.7 7.2 5.8
  Tertiary education 6.4 6.4 6.1 5.1 4.5 3.8 3.7
Slovenia Below upper secondary 8.4 8.7 8.4 8.7 7.0 6.5 5.9
  Upper secondary and post-secondary non-tertiary 5.2 5.5 5.3 5.7 5.6 4.3 3.5
  Tertiary education 2.3 3.0 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.2 3.1
— Not available.
‡ Reporting standards not met. There are too few observations to provide reliable estimates (i.e. there are fewer than 3 percent of students for this cell or too few schools for valid inferences). However, these statistics were included in the calculation of cross-country averages.
NOTE: Education levels are defined according to the 1997 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97). "Below upper secondary" refers to ISCED97 levels 0 (pre-primary education), 1 (primary education), and 2 (lower secondary education). "Upper secondary education" refers to ISCED97 levels 3 (upper secondary education, i.e. secondary education after compulsary schooling ends) and 4 (postsecondary nontertiary programs, i.e. pre-degree foundation courses or short vocational programmes). "Tertiary education" refers to the ISCED97 levels 5A (academic higher education below the doctoral level), 5B (vocational higher education), and 6 (doctoral level of academic higher education).
SOURCE: Data from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2010). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2010, table A6.4a. Paris: Author.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education