Skip Navigation
small NCES header image

Table B.4.01. Proportion of age cohorts in skilled jobs (ISCO 1-3), by educational attainment, age group, and country: 2006 and 1998

    Percentage of cohorts with tertiary education (ISCED 5/61) employed in skilled jobs   Change between 1998 and 2006 (percentage point)   Percentage of cohorts with below tertiary education (ISCED 0-41) employed in skilled jobs   Difference between (percentage point)
Country Year 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 25-64   25-34   25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 25-64   25-34 and 45-54
OECD average 2006 79 82 85 86 82   -2   23 26 26 28 26   -3
  1998 80 85 87 88 84       23 25 27 26 25   -4
OECD countries                                
Australia 2006 77 81 83 83 80     30 34 36 35 33   -6
  1998        
Austria 2006 80 75 76 81 77   4   33 31 29 30 31   4
  1998 76 81 80 82 79       24 24 22 28 24   2
Belgium 2006 75 76 82 85 78   2   22 25 27 32 26   -5
  1998 74 80 85 89 79       19 23 26 34 24   -7
Canada 2006 64 65 66 69 66   1   23 26 26 26 25   -3
  1998 63 67 71 69 66       22 25 26 25 25   -4
Czech Republic 2006 93 95 95 95 94   #   29 33 29 32 31   -1
  1998 94 95 95 95 95       27 28 29 31 28   -2
                                 
Denmark 2006 81 86 88 89 86   1   19 24 25 25 23   -5
  1998 79 86 88 88 85       16 20 21 19 19   -5
Finland 2006 81 81 82 86 82   9   29 25 23 25 25   6
  1998 73 79 80 89 78       27 28 27 25 27   #
France 2006 74 83 88 91 81   -5   19 23 27 31 24   -8
  1998 79 88 91 94 85       18 22 29 30 24   -11
Germany2 2006 79 78 78 78 78   5   31 30 30 31 30   1
  1998 74 75 78 75 76       26 27 28 28 27   -2
Hungary 2006 87 91 92 92 90   -4   20 20 20 23 20   #
  1998 91 92 91 92 92       20 20 21 22 20   -1
                                 
Iceland 2006 85 87 94 88 88     25 30 30 30 29   -5
  1998        
Ireland 2006 65 74 80 80 72     19 25 27 32 25   -9
  1998        
Italy3 2006 79 86 92 96 86   -1   28 32 34 40 33   -6
  1998 80 88 92 94 88       20 23 23 21 22   -3
Luxembourg2 2006 96 96 98 99 97   #   25 27 27 33 27   -2
  1998 96 96 97 97 97       25 29 28 34 28   -3
Netherlands4 2006 85 89 90 91 88   -2   33 36 37 34 35   -4
  1998 87 91 92 95 90       36 40 40 44 39   -4
                                 
Norway 2006 79 88 90 91 86   -1   20 26 26 26 25   -6
  1998 80 88 90 92 86       19 28 28 24 25   -9
Poland 2006 80 92 92 91 87   -11   16 18 21 22 19   -5
  1998 91 94 94 93 93       19 21 23 15 21   -4
Portugal 2006 83 90 93 95 88   -8   14 16 19 18 17   -5
  1998 91 94 94 96 93       12 17 19 16 16   -7
Slovak Republic 2006 89 92 93 94 92   -1   25 26 24 25 25   #
  1998 90 95 96 95 94       22 25 28 26 25   -6
Spain 2006 59 65 75 81 66   #   10 16 18 22 16   -7
  1998 59 74 82 82 69       14 19 20 20 18   -6
                                 
Sweden2 2006 78 87 89 91 86   -13   20 29 28 30 27   -8
  1998 92 94 95 96 94       31 34 38 34 34   -7
Switzerland 2006 82 80 79 81 80   5   34 32 33 32 33   #
  1998 77 78 82 80 79       33 32 32 30 32   #
Turkey 2006 73 79 85 83 77     16 18 17 12 16   -1
  1998        
United Kingdom3 2006 76 81 82 80 80   -3   28 30 28 26 28   -1
  1998 79 85 87 83 83       27 29 28 25 27   -1
United States5 2006 63 65 66 67 65   #   15 18 19 20 18   -4
  1998 63 66 67 68 66       15 18 19 19 18   -4
                                 
Non-OECD countries                                
Israel 2006 73 71 69 67 70   -1   26 24 24 23 25   2
  1998 73 69 68 68 70       27 25 25 24 26   2
Slovenia 2006 90 93 93 94 92   #   23 25 23 21 23   -1
  1998 90 93 93 94 92       23 25 23 21 23   -1
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
1 Education levels are defined according to the 1997 International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED97). Pre-primary education refers to ISCED97 level 0. Primary and secondary education refers to ISCED97 levels 1 (primary education), 2 (lower secondary education), 3 (upper secondary education), and 4 (postsecondary nontertiary programs). Higher education refers to the ISCED97 levels 5A (academic higher education below the doctoral level), 5B (vocational higher education), and 6 (doctoral level of academic higher education).
2 Reference year is 1999 instead of 1998.
3 Italy: change in survey methodology between 1998 and 2006 affects comparability. The United Kingdom: change in national occupation coding frame in 2000 affects comparability for ISCO.
4 Reference year is 2000 instead of 1998.
5 ISCO groupings 3 and 9 in 2006 are not separated and thus distributed among remaining classification.
NOTE: The table only refers to the employed population. ISCO refers to the International Standard Classification of Occupations, an International Labour Organization (ILO) classification structure for organizing information on labor and jobs. Skill levels are defined as: (1) managers, (2) professionals, (3) technicians and associate professionals, (4) clerical support workers, (5) service and sales workers, (6) skilled agricultural, forestry and fishery workers, (7) craft and related trades workers, (8) plant and machine operators and assemblers, (9) elementary occupations, and (0) armed forces occupations. Also, calculations for percentage change were made using raw, unrounded numbers; using whole numbers in the table would not give the same results.
SOURCE: Data from Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (2009). Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators 2009, table A1.6. Paris: Author.
Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey

or

No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education