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Table B.1.75a. Difference in average TIMSS mathematics scores of 4th-grade students, by sex and education system: 2011

Education system Female   Male   Male-female difference
Average score s.e.   Average score s.e.   Score difference s.e.
Spain 477 3.1   488 3.4   11 3.0
Czech Republic 505 2.8   516 2.7   11 2.7
Croatia1 485 2.4   495 2.4   10 2.8
Slovenia 508 2.2   518 3.1   10 3.2
Chile 457 2.7   466 2.8   9 3.3
Austria 504 2.7   513 3.3   9 2.8
Poland 476 2.4   486 2.5   9 2.5
Italy 503 3.1   512 2.9   9 3.0
United States1 536 2.1   545 1.9   9 1.7
Germany 523 2.7   532 2.6   8 2.7
Slovak Republic 503 4.0   511 3.9   8 2.6
Belgium (Flemish)-BEL 545 2.2   553 2.4   8 2.5
Netherlands2 536 2.1   544 2.1   8 2.4
Finland 542 2.5   549 2.9   7 2.8
Norway3 492 2.8   499 3.5   7 2.8
Malta 492 1.6   499 2.1   7 2.5
Korea, Rep. of 601 2.1   608 2.2   7 2.0
Hong Kong-CHN1 598 3.2   604 3.9   6 2.3
Serbia1 513 3.8   519 3.5   6 4.1
Portugal 529 4.1   535 3.4   6 3.2
Australia 513 3.3   519 3.6   6 3.8
Denmark1 534 2.9   540 2.9   6 2.8
Kazakhstan1 498 4.4   504 4.8   5 2.6
Sweden 501 2.5   506 2.4   5 2.7
Ireland 526 3.7   529 3.3   3 4.6
England-GBR 541 4.2   544 3.5   3 3.4
Japan 584 2.0   587 2.5   3 3.0
Romania 481 6.7   484 5.9   3 4.5
Hungary 514 3.6   517 3.9   2 3.2
Lithuania1,4 533 2.6   534 2.9   1 2.6
Iran, Islamic Rep. of 431 5.2   431 5.4   #
New Zealand 486 3.3   486 2.8   #
Northern Ireland-GBR2 562 3.3   563 3.6   #
Russian Federation 543 3.7   542 4.1   -1 2.4
Chinese Taipei-CHN 592 2.5   590 2.4   -2 2.8
Turkey 470 5.2   469 4.8   -2 3.8
Armenia 454 4.1   451 3.6   -3 3.0
Singapore1 608 3.6   604 3.5   -4 3.0
Azerbaijan1,5 466 6.4   460 5.9   -7 3.9
Morocco6 338 4.6   331 4.3   -7 3.9
Tunisia7 363 4.5   356 4.4   -7 4.4
Georgia4,5 454 3.2   447 4.9   -7 3.9
Bahrain 440 4.5   432 4.0   -7 5.5
United Arab Emirates 438 2.8   430 3.5   -8 5.0
Yemen6 255 7.0   243 7.0   -12 7.6
Qatar1 420 4.7   407 4.2   -13 5.6
Thailand 465 4.8   451 5.6   -14 4.4
Saudi Arabia 418 4.6   402 10.0   -16 11.2
Oman7 398 3.2   372 3.4   -26 3.3
Kuwait4,6 358 3.6   323 5.8   -35 6.8
Benchmarking education systems                
North Carolina-USA1,4 548 4.0   560 4.9   12 3.2
Quebec-CAN 527 2.8   538 2.7   11 2.6
Alberta-CAN1 502 3.1   511 2.7   9 3.1
Florida-USA4,8 542 2.8   549 3.9   7 3.3
Ontario-CAN 515 3.3   521 3.4   6 2.6
Dubai-UAE 466 3.5   470 3.9   4 6.7
Abu Dhabi-UAE 425 5.0   409 6.7   -16 7.9
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
1National Defined Population covers 90 percent to 95 percent of National Target Population (see appendix A of source publication).
2Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included.
3Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rates after replacement schools were included.
4National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population (see appendix A of source publication).
5Exclusion rates for Azerbaijan and Georgia are slightly underestimated as some conflict zones were not covered and no official statistics were available.
6The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 25 percent.
7The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 15 percent, though it is less than 25 percent.
8National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent, but at least 77 percent, of the National Target Population (see appendix A of source publication).
NOTE: Education systems are ordered by male-female difference in average score. Italics indicate participants identified and counted in this report as an education system and not as a separate country. "Education system" is defined on page 1 of source publication. Participants that did not administer TIMSS at the target grade are not shown; see the international report for their results. All U.S. state data are based on public school students only. The Mathematics scale ranges from 0 to 1000. Standard error is noted by s.e.
SOURCE: Provasnik, S., Kastberg, D., Ferraro, D., Lemanski, N., Roey, S., and Jenkins, F. (2012). Highlights From TIMSS 2011: Mathematics and Science Achievement of U.S. Fourth- and Eighth-Grade Students in an International Context (NCES 2013–009), supplemental table E-9. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education. Washington, DC.
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