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Table B.1.56. Percentage distribution of U.S. 15-year-old students in PISA on reading literacy scale, by proficiency level and percentage of students in public school eligible for free or reduced-price lunch: 2009
Percent of students in public school eligible for free or reduced-price lunch Below level 1b   Level 1b   Level 1a   Level 2   Level 3   Level 4   Level 5   Level 6
Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.   Percent   s.e.
Less than 10 percent #         4 !* 1.6   15 * 2.5   30   3.0   30 * 3.2   16 * 2.6   4 !* 1.4
10 to 24.9 percent     2 !* 0.8   8 * 1.8   20 *** 2.2   29   2.0   28 * 2.1   12 * 1.7   2 ! 0.6
25 to 49.9 percent     3 * 0.6   13   1.2   26   1.3   29   1.3   21   1.3   7   0.9   1 ! 0.4
50 to 74.9 percent     6   1.2   19 * 1.7   30 * 1.8   26   1.8   15 * 1.7   4 * 0.8    
75 percent or more 2 *** 0.6   9 * 1.6   23 * 2.8   30 * 2.3   24 * 2.2   10 * 1.5   2 !* 0.8    
U.S. average 1   0.1   4   0.5   13   0.8   24   0.9   28   0.8   21   0.9   8   0.8   2   0.4
OECD average 1   0.1   5   0.1   13   0.1   24   0.2   29   0.2   21   0.2   7   0.1   1   #
† Not applicable.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution.
‡ Reporting standards not met.
* p < .05. Significantly different from the U.S. and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) averages at the .05 level of statistical significance.
*** p < .05. Significantly different from the U.S. average at the .05 level of statistical significance, but not significantly different from the OECD average.
NOTE: To reach a particular proficiency level, a student must correctly answer a majority of items at that level. Students were classified into reading literacy levels according to their scores. Exact cut point scores are as follows: below level 1b (a score less than or equal to 262.04); level 1b (a score greater than 262.04 and less than or equal to 334.75); level 1a (a score greater than 334.75 and less than or equal to 407.47); level 2 (a score greater than 407.47 and less than or equal to 480.18); level 3 (a score greater than 480.18 and less than or equal to 552.89); level 4 (a score greater than 552.89 and less than or equal to 625.61); level 5 (a score greater than 625.61 and less than or equal to 698.32); and level 6 (a score greater than 698.32). Scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000. The National School Lunch Program provides free or reduced-price lunch for students meeting certain income guidelines. The percentage of students receiving such lunch is an indicator of the socioeconomic level of families served by the school. Data are for public schools only. The OECD average is the average of the national percentages of the OECD member countries, with each country weighted equally. Standard error is noted by s.e. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Fleischman, H.L., Hopstock, P. J., Pelczar, M.P, and Shelly, B.E. (2010). Highlights From PISA 2009: Performance of U.S. 15-Year-Old Students in Reading, Mathematics, and Science Literacy in an International Context (NCES 2011-004), supplemental table R12. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
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