GEMEnA's third strand of work is to consider new and revised measures of participation in education and training designed to prepare out-of-school youth and adults for work. Existing federal data collections with survey items on enrollment and participation will benefit from a freshening of questionnaire items to better reflect current trends in delivery (including the expansion of on-line learning) and expanded policy interest related to federal and state investments in education and training for work. To begin this strand, GEMEnA commissioned a background paper to describe the two main types of education and training for work that occur outside of traditional credit-bearing postsecondary education: non-credit coursework and formal on-the-job training. Based on this background paper, and in consultation with experts, GEMEnA has identified a set of key research and policy issues. These key issues are guiding the strand 3 item development and review process.As in strands 1 and 2, the item development process for Strand 3 began with a series of focus groups, in this case with adults who have participated in work-related education or training within the past year. Questionnaire items were then developed based on focus group findings. At this point, the participation work was incorporated into strand 4 work to develop a new household study on education, training, and credentials for work. Specifically, the participation items have been incorporated into a new survey instrument to be administered in a 2014 feasibility study, as part of the NCES National Household Education Studies (NHES) program. This work is described in further detail in strand 4.