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Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Private Schools, K-12 Fall 1995
NCES: 97394
May 1997

Glossary of Terms Defined on the Survey Questionnaire

Advanced Telecommunications

- refers to modes of communication used to transmit information from one place to another including broadcast and interactive television, networked, computers, etc.

Broadcast Television

- refers to network television such as NBC, CBS, etc.

Cable Television

- refers to subscription television such as CNN, Learning Channel, Discovery, etc.

Closed-circuit television

- refers to the transmission of television on noncommercial lines (e.g., inhouse broadcast).

E-mail (electronic mail)

- refers to text messages transmitted across networks and usually accessible only by the addressee.

56Kb

- refers to a digital transmission speed of 56 Kilo (thousand) bits per second.

Instructional rooms

- refers to rooms in the school building used for any instructional purposes (includes classrooms, labs, media centers, art rooms, rooms used for vocational and special education, etc.).

Internet

- refers to a network of networks all running the TCP/IP protocols, sharing the same underlying network address space as well as the same domain name space, and interconnected into a network of information.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

- refers to data communication that integrates voice and data.

Local area network (LAN)

- refers to the linkage of computers and/or peripherals (e.g., printer) confined to a limited area that may consist of a room, building, or campus that allows users to communicate and share information.

Modem

- a device which connects between a computer and a phone line to translate between the digital signal of the computer and the analog signal required for telephone transmission.

News groups

- electronic conferences/discussion groups similar to maillists. News group messages, called articles, are not mailed to a subscriber's E-mailbox but are distributed to a subscribing system's news server. The single copy is then accessed by all users on their network-connected machines. Each news group focuses on a subject area.

One-way video with two-way audio or two-way computer link

- refers to the ability to transmit or receive a picture in one direction with the capability to communicate in two directions (interactively) via computer or some audio method.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol)

- refers to a protocol that allows a computer to use TCP/IP (Internet) protocols (and become a fullfledged Internet member) with a standard telephone line and a high speed modem. See SLIP.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol)

- refers to a protocol that allows a computer to use TCP/IP (Internet) protocol using serial lines such as dial-up telephone lines. See PPP.

T1 rate

- refers to a digital transmission speed of 1.544 Mega (millions) bits per second.

Two-way video and audio

- refers to the ability to transmit and receive pictures and sounds simultaneously in real time.

Wide area network

- refers to a data communications linkage designed to connect computers over distances greater than the distance transmitted by local area networks (e.g., building to building, city to city, across the country, or internationally) that allows users to communicate and share information.

World Wide Web (WWW)

- refers to a system that allows access to information sites all over the world using a standard common interface called hypertext to organize and search information. It simplifies the process of finding a site, connecting, locating the appropriate documents and downloading the information through the use of a browser (e.g., Netscape, Mosaic).

Other Terms Used on the Questionnaire or in the Survey Report

Archie

- a research tool on the Internet for finding network host computers that have programs or data file which can be transferred to your machine.

Browsers

- software application that allows the user to access a server computer on the Internet (e.g., Netscape).

Gopher

- software which permits searching files on the Internet on remote hosts using layered menus. Text from these files can be read online or the files can be transferred to your computer.

Mosaic

- World Wide Web browser or client capable of accessing data via protocols such as Gopher and World Wide Web (WWW) directly that will receive and display a wide variety of data types.

Netscape

- a browser software application that allows the user to access a server computer on the Internet.

Veronica (Very Easy Rodont-Oriented Net-wide Index to Computerized Archives)

- an Internet search tool that does keyword searches of indexes of Gopher documents at Internet sites.

Sample Universe and Classification Variables 1993-94 NCES Private School Survey (PSS) Universe File

- a data base containing one record for each private elementary, secondary and combined school in the 50 states and the District of Columbia as reported to the National Center for Education Statistics in the Private School Universe Survey, 1993-94.

School

- schools are those offering a conventional academic program.

Affiliation:

Catholic - schools religiously affiliated with the Catholic Church. This includes parochial schools associated with parishes, diocesan, and private or independent Catholic schools.

Other religious - schools affiliated with religions or with a religious orientation other than Catholic such as a national denomination, schools affiliated with a Conservative Christian school association and those religious schools that are not affiliated with a national denomination or a conservative Christian association.

Nonsectarian - schools that are not affiliated with a church or a religious orientation.

Instructional level:

Elementary - a school that had grade 6 or lower, or "ungraded" and no grade higher than 8th. It would include schools comprised of students in grades 1 through 6, students in grades 7 and 8 when the remainder of the students in the school are in the lower grades or are ungraded, and students in ungraded classes in schools with no grade higher than the 8th grade.

Secondary - a school that had no grade lower than the 7th, or "ungraded" and had grade 7 or higher. This category includes schools comprised of students in grades 9 through 12, students in grades 7 and 8 when the remainder of the students in the school are in grades above 8th or are ungraded, and students in ungraded classes in schools with no grade lower 7th.

Combined - a school that has grades higher than the 8th and lower than the 7th. It includes schools comprised of students in any grade in schools that range below grade 7 and above grade 8, or of students that are all in ungraded classes.

Size of enrollment:

Less than 150 - schools with total enrollments under 150 students as reported on PSS Universe were considered schools with relatively small enrollments for analytical purposes.

150-299 - schools with total enrollments from 150 to 299 students are considered medium-sized schools.

300 or more - schools with total enrollments of 300 or more students are considered large schools.

Metropolitan status:

Locale of school based on school's mailing address matched to Bureau of the Census data files containing population density data, standard metropolitan statistical area (SMSA) codes, and a census code identifying urban and rural schools.

City - a central city of a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA).

Urban fringe - a place within an MSA of a large or mid-size central city and defined as urban by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Town - a place not within an MSA, but with a population greater than or equal to 2,500, and defined as urban by the U.S. Bureau of the Census. Rural - a place with a population less than 2,500 and defined as rural by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.

Geographic region

The geographic regions are those used by the National Assessment of Educational Progress and the National Education Association. (The National Education Association designates the Central region as "Middle" region in its classification.)

Northeast - Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.

Southeast - Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

Central - Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.

West - Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon

Percent minority enrollment:

Less than 6 percent - less than 6 percent of the students enrolled in the school were American Indian or Alaskan Native; Asian or Pacific Islander; Hispanic, regardless of race (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin); or Black (not of Hispanic origin).

6 to 20 percent - between 6 and 20 percent of the students enrolled in the school were members of a racial/ethnic minority.

21 to 49 percent - between 21 and 49 percent of the students enrolled in the school were members of a racial/ethnic minority.

50 percent or more - between 50 and 100 percent of the students enrolled in the school were members of a racial/ethnic minority.

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