The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly household survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census for the Bureau of Labor Statistics to provide information about employment, unemployment, and other characteristics of the civilian noninstitutionalized population.

Since the late 1960s, NCES has funded a supplement for the Current Population Survey. The October Supplement routinely gathers data on school enrollment and educational attainment for elementary, secondary, and postsecondary education. Related data are also collected about preschooling and the general adult population. In addition, NCES funds additional items on education-related topics such as language proficiency, disabilities, computer use and access, student mobility, and private school tuition.