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Trends in Education Equity of Girls and Women

Academic Performance

Academic performance is a key measure of school success because high performance in school opens doors to postsecondary education and to well-paying jobs. For females to have the same opportunities as males in postsecondary education and in the labor market, it is important for them to be equally well prepared academically. Overall, females have done much better than males in reading and writing, but have generally, though not always, lagged behind in science and mathematics. Concern exists that this gap in science and mathematics may give them less access to high paying jobs, although there are no data to compare this disadvantage with the possible disadvantage faced by males because of their lower reading and writing achievement.

Reading and Writing

Reading and writing are basic skills required for most jobs and for functioning in contemporary society. Scores on the main assessment of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reveal that females in grades 4, 8, and 12 have consistently outperformed males in reading. The main assessment data from NAEP show females continued to have higher reading scores than males at all three grades, but there were no measurable increases in females' scores when 1992 data were compared to 2003 data at grades four and eight, and there was a decrease in twelfth-grade reading scores for females-from 297 in 1992 to 295 in 2002 (figure 1). Females in the United States in grades 4, 8, and 12 also outperformed their male peers in writing in 1998 and 2002 (not shown in figures).

However, females' higher achievement in reading and writing on the NAEP assessments did not translate into higher achievement on AP examinations in English. Although females accounted for a higher proportion of students taking the AP examination in English in 2002, their average score was lower than that of males (figure 2).

Figure 1. Average scale scores in reading for fourth-, eighth- and twelfth-graders, by sex: Various years, 1992, 2002, and 2003


Average scale scores in reading for fourth-, eighth- and twelfth-graders, by sex: Various years, 1992, 2002, and 2003

NOTE: These test scores are from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). Accommodations were not permitted for the 1992 assessment. Scale ranges from 0 to 500. For a discussion of the reading scale score definitions, please see The NAEP Reading Scale.
SOURCE: Figure B in U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women: 2004, NCES 2005–016, by Catherine Freeman. Washington, DC: 2004.

Figure 2. Average score on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations, by test subject area and sex: 2002


Average score on Advanced Placement (AP) examinations, by test subject area and sex: 2002

NOTE: Please see the report, Advanced Placement Program, National Summary Report, 2002, from the College Board for more specific information regarding test subjects.
SOURCE: Figure D in U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women: 2004, NCES 2005–016, by Catherine Freeman. Washington, DC: 2004.

Math and Science

Proficiency in science and mathematics has become particularly important, as jobs in our technological society increasingly require workers to use complex mathematics skills and scientific knowledge to solve problems (The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2000, NCES 2001-517). Although there is a common perception that males consistently outperform females in mathematics, NAEP mathematics scores have not shown this (figure 3). In mathematics, the gap between average scale scores has been quite small and fluctuated only slightly between 1990 and 2003.

In 2002, males made up a higher proportion of students taking AP exams in science and calculus. Males also obtained higher average scores on these examinations compared to females (figure 2).

Trends in science achievement have been slightly different. Among fourth- and eighth-graders, males scored higher than females on the 2000 science assessment, but not on the 1996 assessment. In contrast, among twelfth-graders, males outperformed females on the 1996 assessment, but there was no measurable difference on the 2000 assessment. The score gap between males and females increased between 1996 and 2000 at the fourth and eighth grades, but there was no measurable difference in the size of the gap at twelfth grade (not shown in figures).

Figure 3. Average scale scores in mathematics for fourth-, eighth-, and twelfth-graders, by sex: 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2003


Average scale scores in mathematics for fourth-, eighth-, and twelfth-graders, by sex: 1990, 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2003

NOTE: These test scores are from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) Main Assessment. Scale ranges from 0 to 500. For both the 1990 and 1992 assessments, accommodations were not permitted. For a discussion of the mathematics scale score definitions, please see The NAEP Mathematics Scale.
SOURCE: Figure E in U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in Educational Equity of Girls and Women: 2004, NCES 2005–016, by Catherine Freeman. Washington, DC: 2004.

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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
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