Studying Processes of Classroom Instruction
The Use of Video for Studying Classroom Instruction
Issues in Video Research
Harnessing the Power of the Anecdote
Sampling
The Main Video Sample
Overview of Procedures
Field Test
Videotaping in Classrooms
Teacher Questionnaire
Constructing the Multimedia Database
Developing Codes
First-Pass Coding: The Lesson Tables
Methods for Describing Mathematical Content
The Math Content Group
Statistical Analyses
Weighting
Comparison of Video Subsamples with Main TIMSS Samples
Validity of the Video Observations
Content: A Place to Begin
General Descriptions of Content
How Advanced is the Content by International Standards?
A Closer Look at Content
Were Concepts Stated or Developed?
Findings of the Math Content Group
Characteristics of the Classroom
Basic Characteristics of the Lesson
Organization of the Lesson
Developing Concepts and Methods
The Use of Instructional Materials
Processes During Seatwork
Classroom Discourse
Reform in the Classroom: Qualitative Analyses
Typical Lessons: Germany, Japan, and the United States
Information Given to U.S. Teachers Prior to Videotaping
Response Rates
Personnel
English Version of the Teacher Questionnaire
Standard Errors
Transcription Conventions
German sample for the Videotape Classroom Study broken down by type of school Distribution of videotaping over time in each country Example of first-pass coding table for Japanese lesson (JP-012) Excerpt from the content description column of the lesson table for JP-012 Distributions of unweighted average mathematics achievement test scores for classrooms in the Main TIMSS samples and video subsamples from each country Teachers' reports of how nervous or tense they felt about being videotaped Teachers' ratings of the quality of the videotaped lesson compared to lessons they usually teach Teachers' average ratings of the typicality of various aspects of the videotaped lesson Percentage of lessons in each country in which content belonged to each of the ten major content categories Average grade level of content by international standards Teachers' description of the content of the videotaped lesson on a continuum from "all review" to "all new" Teachers' responses, on the questionnaire, to the question, "What was the main thing you wanted students to learn from today's lesson?" Average number of topics and topic segments per videotaped lesson in each country Pictures of the chalkboard from GR-096 Average percentage of topics in each lesson that include concepts, applications, or both Materials used in US-068 A view of the classroom in US-061 Average percentage of topics in eighth-grade mathematics lessons that contained concepts that were stated or developed Drawing from chalkboard of first problem in US-018 Drawing from chalkboard of second problem in US-018 Average percentage of topics in each lesson that contained applications that increased in complexity vs. stayed the same or decreased over the course of the lesson (a) Percentage of lessons that included teacher-presented and student-presented alternative solution methods; (b) average number of teacher- and student-presented alternative solution methods presented per lesson Excerpt from chalkboard from JP-039, with English translation Average number of principles/properties and definitions in each German, Japanese, and U.S. eighth-grade mathematics lesson Directed graph representation of a Japanese lesson (JP-012) as constructed by the Math Content Group Additional example of directed graph produced by the Math Content Group Average number of nodes and links on the directed graph representations of lessons in each country (a) Percentage of lessons that included one, two, or more than two components; (b) percentage of lessons that included one, two, or more than two leaves Percentage of lessons with nodes coded to include illustrations, motivations, increase in complexity, and deductive reasoning Percentage of lessons containing links coded as increase in complexity and necessary result/process Average number of codes per node and per link in German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons Percentage of lessons in each country containing mostly single-step, mostly multi-step, or equal numbers of the two types of tasks Percentage of lessons containing task controlled tasks, solver controlled tasks, or a combination of task and solver controlled tasks Percentage of lessons rated as having low, medium, and high quality of mathematical content Arrangement of desks in German, Japanese, and U.S. classrooms Percentage of lessons with at least one outside interruption Average number of organizational segments in German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons Average number of classwork and seatwork segments per lesson in each country Average percentage of time during the lesson spent in classwork and seatwork in each country Mean duration of classwork and seatwork segments in each country Percentage of seatwork time spent working individually, in groups, or in a mixture of individuals and groups Percentage of lessons in each country in which seatwork of various kinds occurred Overview of categories for coding lesson activity segments Mean number of activity segments in German, Japanese, and U.S. lessons Time devoted to unrelated activities during the mathematics lesson: (a) as a percentage of total lesson time and (b) as percentage of lessons in which any activity is coded as "other" Percentage of lessons in which class works on and shares homework (not including assigning homework) Emphasis on teacher talk/demonstration as indicated by (a) percentage of lesson time, and (b) percentage of lessons in which such segments occur (a) Percentage of total lesson time spent in and (b) average duration of working on task/situation segments Average percentage of lesson time spent in (a) working on task/situation during classwork, and (b) working on task/situation during seatwork Average percentage of total lesson time spent in setting up and sharing task/situation Average percentage of topics including development that (a) include at least some seatwork and (b) include actual development of concepts during a seatwork segment Percentage of lessons in which chalkboard and overhead projector are used Percentage of lessons in which various instructional materials were used Percentage of lessons including (a) chalkboard or (b) overhead projector in which students come to the front and use it Example of chalkboard use from a Japanese lesson Percentage of tasks, situations, and PPDs (principles/properties/definitions) written on the chalkboard that were erased or remained on the chalkboard at the end of the lesson Average percentage of lessons where manipulatives were used in which the manipulatives were used by teacher, students, or both Excerpt from chalkboard of JP-007 Excerpt from textbook page used in GR-103 Problems from worksheet used in US-016 Average percentage of time in seatwork/working on task/situation segments spent working on four different patterns of tasks and situations in each country 99 Excerpt from chalkboard in JP-034 Excerpt from computer monitor used in JP-012 Excerpt from chalkboard in JP-012 Average percentage of seatwork time spent in three kinds of tasks Categories used for first-pass coding of utterances during public discourse Subcategories of elicitations Subcategories of content elicitations Average percentage of utterances and words spoken by teachers in each country 106 Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled per lesson) coded into each of six teacher utterance categories Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled) coded into each of five student utterance categories Average length of student responses as measured by number of words Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled per lesson) coded into each of five categories of teacher elicitations Average number of utterances (out of 30 sampled) coded into each of three categories of content elicitations Four subcategories of information and direction utterances The elicitation-response sequence (a) Average number of discourse codes per minute of classwork in the three countries; (b) average number of elicitation-response sequences per minute of classwork in the three countries Average percentage of initiating elicitations of elicitation-response sequences in each country: Content-related elicitations seeking facts Average percentage of initiating elicitations of elicitation-response sequences in each country: Content-related elicitations seeking individual ideas Percentage of lessons that include explicit linking by the teacher (a) to ideas or events in a different lesson, and (b) to ideas or events in the current lesson Teachers' ratings of how aware they are of current ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics Teachers' responses when asked where they get information regarding current ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics Teachers' perceptions regarding the extent to which the videotaped lesson was in accord with current ideas about the teaching and learning of mathematics Percentage of lessons among Reformers and Non-Reformers in the United States in which seatwork of various kinds occurred Frames from the video of US-060 Comparison of steps typical of eighth-grade mathematics lessons in Japan, Germany, and the United States |

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