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General Terms

Crime
    Any violation of a statute or regulation or any act that the government has determined is injurious to the public, including felonies and misdemeanors. Such violation may or may not involve violence, and it may affect individuals or property.
Incident
    A specific criminal act or offense involving one or more victims and one or more offenders.
Prevalence
    The percentage of the population directly affected by crime in a given period. This rate is based upon specific information elicited directly from the respondent regarding crimes committed against his or her person, against his or her property, or against an individual bearing a unique relationship to him or her. It is not based upon perceptions and beliefs about, or reactions to, criminal acts.
School
    An education institution consisting of one or more of grades K through 12.
School crime
    Any criminal activity that is committed on school property.
School property
    School buildings, school buses, school grounds, and places that are holding school-sponsored events, even though they are not officially on school grounds.
School year
    The 12-month period of time denoting the beginning and ending dates for school accounting purposes, usually from July 1 through June 30.


Specific Terms Used in Various Surveys

National Crime Victimization Survey

Aggravated assault
    Attack or attempted attack with a weapon, regardless of whether or not an injury occurs, and attack without a weapon when serious injury results.
Rape
    Forced sexual intercourse including both psychological coercion as well as physical force. Forced sexual intercourse means vaginal, anal, or oral penetration by the offender(s). This category also includes incidents where the penetration is from a foreign object such as a bottle.
Robbery
    Completed or attempted theft, directly from a person, of property or cash by force or threat of force, with or without a weapon, and with or without injury.
Rural
    A place not located inside the Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA). This category includes a variety of localities, ranging from sparsely populated rural areas to cities with populations of less than 50,000.
Serious violent crime
    Rape, sexual assault, robbery, or aggravated assault.
Sexual assault
    A wide range of victimizations, separate from rape or attempted rape. These crimes include attacks or attempted attacks generally involving unwanted sexual contact between the victim and offender. Sexual assault may or may not involve force and includes such things as grabbing or fondling. Sexual assault also includes verbal threats.
Simple assault
    Attack without a weapon resulting either in no injury, minor injury, or in undetermined injury requiring less than 2 days of hospitalization. Also includes attempted assault without a weapon.
Suburban
    A county or counties containing a central city, plus any contiguous counties that are linked socially and economically to the central city. On the data tables, suburban areas are categorized as those portions of metropolitan areas situated "outside central cities."
Theft
    Completed or attempted theft of property or cash without personal contact.
Victimization
    A crime as it affects one individual person or household. For personal crimes, the number of victimizations is equal to the number of victims involved. The number of victimizations may be greater than the number of incidents because more than one person may be victimized during an incident.
Victimization rate
    A measure of the occurrence of victimizations among a specific population group.
Violent crime
    Rape, sexual assault, robbery, or assault.
Urban
    The largest city (or grouping of cities) in an MSA.

School Crime Supplement

At school
    In the school building, on the school grounds, or on a school bus.
Property crime
    Theft of property from a student's desk, locker, or other locations at school.
Violent crime
    Physical attacks or taking property from the student directly by force, weapons, or threats.

National Household Education Survey

At school
    In the school, at school activities, or on the way to or from school.
Bully
    Treat other persons abusively or affect others by means of force or coercion. For example, pick on others or make other students do things like give them money.
Rural
    Places not classified as urban are rural.
Urban
    An urban area in an urbanized area comprising a place and the adjacent densely settled surrounding territory that together have a minimum population of 50,000 people.
Suburban
    A suburban area is an urban area out of an urbanized area that includes incorporated or unincorporated places outside of an urbanized area with a minimum population of 2,500 people.

Youth Risk Behavior Survey

Weapon
    Any instrument or object used with the intent to threaten, injure, or kill. Examples of weapons appearing in the questionnaire include guns, knives, and clubs.

FRSS Principal/School Disciplinarian Survey

At school
    In school buildings, on school buses, on school grounds, or at places that hold school-sponsored events or activities, but are not officially on school grounds.
Central region
    Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin.
City
    A central city of an MSA.
Elementary school
    A school that has a low grade of 3 or less and a high grade of 1 through 8.
Free/reduced-price lunch
    The percent of students enrolled in the school who are eligible for the federally
High school/combined
    A school that has a low grade of 9 through 12 and a high grade of 10 through 12. Schools that do not precisely meet these qualifications are classified as "combined" and are included in the analyses with high schools.
Less serious or nonviolent crime
    Physical attack or fight without a weapon, theft or larceny, or vandalism.
Minority enrollment
    The percent of students enrolled in the school whose race or ethnicity is classified as one of the following: American Indian or Alaskan Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, black, or Hispanic, based on data in the 1993-94 Common Core of Data (CCD) file.
Middle school
    A school that has a low grade of 4 through 9 and a high grade of 4 through 9.
Northeast region
    Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
Robbery
    The taking or attempting to take anything of value that is owned by another person or organization, under confrontational circumstances by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear.
Physical attack or fight
    An actual and intentional touching or striking of another person against his or her will, or the intentional causing of bodily harm to an individual. This category should be used only when the attack is serious enough to warrant calling the police or other law enforcement representative.
Rural
    A place with a population less than 2,500 and defined as rural by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
School enrollment
    Total number of students enrolled as defined by CCD.
Serious violent crime
    Murder, suicide, rape or sexual battery, physical attack or fight with a weapon, or robbery.
Sexual battery
    An incident that includes rape, fondling, indecent liberties, child molestation, or sodomy.
Southeast region
    Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.
Theft or larceny
    The unlawful taking of another person's property without personal confrontation, threat, violence, or bodily harm.
Town
    A place not within an MSA, but with a population greater than or equal to 2,500 and defined as urban by the U.S. Bureau of the Census.
Urban fringe
    A place within an MSA of a central city, but not primarily its central city.
Vandalism
    The damage or destruction of school property.
West region
    Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oklahoma, Oregon, Texas, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming.

Monitoring the Future

Alcoholic beverage
    Drink (such as beer, wine, wine coolers, and liquor) that contains ethanol, which may intoxicate a person who uses it.
Cocaine
    A bitter crystalline alkaloid obtained from coca leaves that is used illicitly for its euphoric effects and that may result in a compulsive psychological need. Cocaine can be taken in "crack" form, where a user inhales the fumes from smoking, heating, or burning it.
LSD
    A psychedelic drug that induces psychotic symptoms similar to those of schizophrenia. LSD is sometimes called "acid."
Marijuana
    Dried leaves and flowering tops of the female hemp plant that yield THC and are smoked in cigarettes for their intoxicating effect. Marijuana is sometimes called "grass," "pot," or "dope."
Tranquilizers
    Drugs prescribed by doctors to calm people down, quiet their nerves, or relax their muscles. They include the following drugs: Librium, Valium, Miltown, Equanil, Meprobamate, Serax, Atarax, Tranxene, and Vistaril.
Weapon
    Any instrument or object used with the intent to threaten, injure, or kill. Examples of weapons appearing in the questionnaire include guns, knives, and clubs.

Schools and Staffing Survey

Central city
    A large central city (a central city of an MSA with population greater than or equal to 400,000, or a population density greater than or equal to 6,000 per square mile) or a mid-size central city (a central city of an MSA, but not designated as a large central city).
Elementary school teachers
    An elementary school teacher is one who, when asked for the grades taught, checked: 1) only "ungraded" and was designated as an elementary teacher on the list of teachers provided by the school; 2) 6th grade or lower, or "ungraded," and no grade higher than 6th; 3) 6th grade or lower and 7th grade or higher, and reported a primary assignment of prekindergarten, kindergarten, or general elementary; 4) 7th and 8th grades only, and reported a primary assignment of pre-kindergarten, kindergarten, or general elementary; 5) 6th grade or lower and 7th grade or higher, and reported a primary assignment of special education and was designated as an elementary teacher on the list of teachers provided by the school; or 6) 7th and 8th grades only, and reported a primary assignment of special education and was designated as an elementary teacher on the list of teachers provided by the school. A school that has grade 6 or lower, or one that is "ungraded" with no grade higher than the 8th.
Rural or small town
    Rural area (a place with a population of less than 2,500 and defined as rural by the U.S. Bureau of the Census) or a small town (a place not within an MSA, with a population of less than 25,000, but greater than or equal to 2,500, and defined as nonurban by the U.S. Bureau of the Census).
Secondary school teachers
    A secondary school teacher is one who, when asked for the grades taught, checked: 1) "ungraded" and was designated as a secondary teacher on the list of teachers provided by the school; 2) 6th grade or lower and 7th grade or higher, and reported a primary assignment other than prekindergarten, kindergarten, or general elementary; 3) 9th grade or higher, or 9th grade or higher and "ungraded"; 4) 7th and 8th grades only, and reported a primary assignment other than prekindergarten, kindergarten, general elementary, or special education; 5) 7th and 8th grades only, and reported a primary assignment of special education and was designated as a secondary teacher on the list of teachers provided by the school; or 6) 6th grade or lower and 7th grade or higher, or 7th and 8th grades only, and was not categorized above as either elementary or secondary.
Urban fringe or large town
    Urban fringe of a large or mid-size city (a place within an MSA of a mid-size central city and defined as urban by the U.S. Bureau of the Census) or a large town (a place not within an MSA, but with a population greater or equal to 25,000 and defined as urban by the U.S. Bureau of the Census).

S. Patrick Kachur et al., "School-Associated Violent Deaths in the United States, 1992 to 1994"

Homicide
    An act involving a killing of one person by another resulting from interpersonal violence.
School-associated violent death
    A homicide or suicide in which the fatal injury occurred on the campus of a functioning elementary or secondary school in the United States, while the victim was on the way to or from regular sessions at such a school, or while the victim was attending or traveling to or from an official school-sponsored event. Victims included nonstudents as well as students and staff members.
Suicide
    An act of taking one's own life voluntarily and intentionally.

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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education