Fall Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, 1993
Part 1. Overview of Staff in Postsecondary and Higher Education Institutions
Staff in All Postsecondary Institutions (8,861 institutions)
Staff in Institutions of Higher Education (IHE) (3,670 institutions)
- There were about 2.7 million employees in postsecondary institutions in 1993 (table 1), about
2.1 percent of the total U.S. labor force (figure 1).
- Almost one-third of all postsecondary employees were part time in 1993. In 2-year
institutions almost half of the employees were part time (47 percent in 1993) (table 1).
- The growth in the 1990s has been in part-time staff, which increased by 12 percent between
1991 and 1993. In contrast, full-time postsecondary staff declined by 1.4 percent over the same
period (table 1).
- Over three-fourths of staff were employed in 4-year institutions. Ninety-one percent of
2-year staff were in public institutions (figure 5).
- Overall, about 36 percent of postsecondary staff were faculty (figure 6). The proportion of
staff who were faculty is higher in 2-year institutions than in 4-year institutions (57 percent
compared to 30 percent) (table 4).
Part 2: Faculty Growth, Distribution, Rank, and Tenure in Institutions of Higher
- About 95 percent of postsecondary staff were employed in the subset of institutions of higher
education (figures 1 and 2).
- While growth in staff in institutions of higher education has outpaced total labor force
growth since 1976, between 1991 and 1993 IHE staff grew at about the same rate as the labor force
as a whole (figure 3).
- Professional staff grew as a proportion of the total IHE staff from 58 percent in 1976 to 65
percent in 1993 (table 2).
- The largest increase among the occupational categories has been in the category of
professional (support/service) staff, which increased by 138 percent since 1976, as compared to
faculty, which increased by 45 percent (figure 7).
- The overall full-time-equivalent (FTE) student-staff ratio was 4.9 in both 1991 and 1993. The
student-faculty ratio was 15.5 in 1993 (table 2).
- The FTE student-faculty ratio was 29 percent higher in public than private institutions (table
- While women were about half of all full-time IHE staff, the distribution by occupation is
highly gender specific. In 1993, women were 91 percent of the secretarial/clerical category and
only 5 percent of the skilled crafts. Women were 33 percent of full-time faculty in 1993 (table
- Large differences exist in the occupational distribution of full-time staff in IHEs by
race/ethnicity. For example, in 1993 blacks were 31.9 percent of the IHE service/maintenance
occupational category and 4.7 percent of faculty, while being 11.0 percent of the total U.S. labor
force. Whites were 55.6 percent of the service/maintenance category and 85.9 percent of faculty,
while being 78.2 percent of the labor force (table 5).
- Among IHE staff, Hispanics were the least represented relative to their numbers in the U.S.
labor force. In 1993, Hispanics were about 8.1 percent of the labor force, 2.2 percent of
faculty, and 4.1 percent of all IHE staff (table 5).
- Median 1993 salaries for IHE staff for full-time staff ranged from $18,178 for the
service/maintenance staff to $49,845 for the executive/administrative/managerial staff (figure
- Among full-time IHE staff in 1993, in each of the seven occupational categories, Asians,
whites, and men had higher salaries than blacks, American/Indians or Alaska Natives, Hispanics,
and women (figure 8).
- The median salary for full-time IHE faculty in a 9- to 10-month contract was $43,205 in 1993.
Women full-time faculty median salaries were 81 percent those of men (figure 8).
Part 3. New Hires in Institutions of Higher Education
- There has been a growth in the percent of faculty that were in 2-year institutions (from 19
percent in 1970 to 32 percent in 1993), and in the percent that were part time (from 22 percent in
1970 to 40 percent in 1993) (table 7).
- Women have gone from 27 percent of total faculty in 1976 to 39 percent in 1993 (table 8).
Between 1976 and 1993, the total number of women faculty increased by 105 percent compared with a
22 percent increase for men faculty (calculated from table 8).
- Women faculty were much more likely to be part time than men faculty. About 35 percent of men
faculty were part time and almost half (49 percent) of women faculty were part time in 1993
- All minority groups have increased as a proportion of full-time faculty since 1976. Asians
have had the largest increases, going from 2.2 percent in 1976 to 4.6 percent in 1993 (table
- Minority share of faculty lags behind minority share of students. For example, over
one-fourth of undergraduates and 18 percent of bachelor?s degree recipients were members of
minority groups in 1993, compared with 14 percent of full-time faculty (table 9) and 15 percent of
part-time faculty (Appendix table B6a1).
- About half of full-time faculty were tenured in 1993, about the same percentage as in the
mid-1970s. However, there has been an increase in the percent of full-time faculty that are not
on a tenure track since 1975; for example, among whites the percent not on a tenure track went
from 18 percent in 1975 to 27 percent in 1993 (figure 13 and table 10).
- White full-time faculty were more likely to be tenured than minorities (table 10), and men
were more likely to be tenured than women. Women and minorities were also less likely to be in
tenure track positions than men and white full-time faculty (figure 13).
- Women and minorities were also less likely to have the rank of full professor. For example,
only about 15 percent of women faculty held the rank of full professor, compared to 36 percent of
men faculty (figures 14 and 15).
- There were about 99,763 total full-time new hires among IHE institutions in 1993. In 1977
there were 133,241 new full-time hires (figure 16), and in 1985 there were 118,047 new full-time
hires (unpublished EEO-6 data).
- There were large declines in the number of new hires among nonprofessional staff. For
example, clerical/secretarial full-time hires declined by 50 percent compared to levels in the
1970s (figure 16).
- The number of faculty full-time hires has fluctuated between 32,000 and 41,000 over the period
of 1981-91 (Appendix table E-3).
- Women have grown substantially as a portion of the newly hired faculty, going from 24 percent
in 1977 to 45 percent in 1993 (figure 17).
- Over the period since 1977, minorities have grown as a portion of the new hires of full-time
faculty, going from 10.9 percent in 1977 to 19.8 percent in 1993 (table 12).
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