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Table 1.   Percentage of students in kindergarten through grade 12 whose parents reported school-initiated communication practices, by method of communication and selected school, student, and family characteristics: 2011–12

Characteristic Number of students in kindergarten through grade 12 (thousands) Method by which school communicated with parents
Notes or e-mail about student   Notes or e-mail addressed to all parents about student   Telephone call about student   
Total 52,211 57   87   41
School type1            
Public, assigned 40,097 56   86   41
Public, chosen 7,448 57   87   44
Private, religious 3,271 66   95   32
Private, nonreligious 788 75   97   37
School size2            
Under 300 5,878 60   88   39
300–599 17,361 59   88   39
600–999 15,655 57   88   41
1,000 or more 13,068 53   83   42
Locale of student's household3            
City 15,413 52   84   44
Suburban 19,718 60   90   40
Town 4,875 58   86   40
Rural 12,206 60   87   37
Student's sex            
Male 26,964 61   86   45
Female 25,247 54   88   36
Student's race/ethnicity            
White, non-Hispanic 26,938 61   90   36
Black, non-Hispanic 7,466 57   81   53
Hispanic 12,110 50   84   44
Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic 2,871 49   84   34
Other, non-Hispanic4 2,827 61   89   42
Student's grade level5            
Kindergarten–2nd grade 13,610 59   90   39
3rd–5th grade 12,243 61   90   41
6th–8th grade 11,717 55   85   43
9th–12th grade 14,642 54   82   40
Parents' highest education level                
Less than high school 6,335 45   74   46
High school graduate or equivalent 10,571 47   80   43
Vocational/technical or some college 15,810 57   87   42
Bachelor's degree 11,839 65   93   36
Graduate or professional school 7,656 69   96   34
Parents' language at home6                
Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English 44,525 59   88   40
One of two parents speaks English 1,856 51   83   46
No parent speaks English 5,830 46   81   42
Poverty status7                
Poor 10,333 48   78   48
Nonpoor 41,878 59   89   39
1 School type classifies the school currently attended as either public or private. Public schools are further classified according to whether the school was chosen or assigned.  Private schools are also classified as being religious or nonreligious. School type also excludes 197 cases where the Common Core of Data (CCD) indicated that the school was public but the respondent indicated the student attended a private school. None of the 197 cases excluded from this variable attended charter or magnet schools as identified on the CCD.
2 Excludes 90 cases because of missing data on the Common Core of Data (CCD)/Private School Survey (PSS) data files.
3 Locale of student's household classifies the residential ZIP code into a set of four major locale categories: city, suburban, town, rural.
4 "Other, non-Hispanic" includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or who were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander. The different groups mentioned here are not shown separately because the sample sizes do not support stable estimates. Those reported as Asian and Pacific Islander who are not Hispanic are included in the "Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic" group.
5 Students whose parents reported the student's grade equivalent as "ungraded" were excluded from the analyses of grade level.
6 Complete descriptions of the categories for parents' language are as follows: (1) "Both parents or the only parent learned English first or currently speak(s) English in the home," (2) "One of two parents in a two-parent household learned English first or currently speaks English in the home," and (3) "No parent learned English first and both parents or the only parent currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home."
7 Students are considered poor if living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the household's needs, given its size and composition. Income is collected in categories in the survey, rather than as an exact amount, and therefore the poverty measures used in this report are approximations of poverty. Detailed information on the poverty status calculation used in this report is available in appendix B.
NOTE:  Students who were homeschooled were excluded from the table. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Variables for school characteristics (school type and school size) have a certain number of missing cases owing to school nonreport; therefore, the number of students across the categories for each school variable does not sum to the total number of students.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), 2012.
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