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Table E-39-1.  Percentage of first-year undergraduates who reported ever taking a remedial course, by level of institution, sex, and race/ethnicity: Academic years 2003–04 and 2007–08

Sex and race/ethnicity 2003–04   2007–08  
All institutions   4-year   2-year   Less-than 2-year   All institutions   4-year   2-year   Less-than 2-year  
Total1 34.7   27.1   39.9   25.2   36.2   28.8   40.9   27.8  
Sex                                
Male 32.9   24.3   38.4   24.5   32.8   24.1   37.4   31.1  
Female 36.0   29.4   41.1   25.4   38.8   32.4   43.6   26.6  
                                 
Race/ethnicity                                
White 31.7   25.0   36.2   25.5   31.3   24.2   35.8   24.0  
Black 41.2   36.3   46.0   23.8   45.1   38.1   50.2   31.4  
Hispanic 37.5   27.9   44.6   25.4   43.3   38.4   48.6   29.5  
Asian 39.6   28.8   46.5   32.7   38.0   27.9   42.8   36.5  
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 40.8   37.0   44.0   29.3   40.0   20.8 ! 44.9   30.4  
American Indian/Alaska Native 44.8   25.6   54.6   20.3   46.8   35.6   53.2   33.4  
Two or more races 33.9   26.0   40.3   22.6   32.8   27.3   36.8   17.5  
                                 
Race/ethnicity by sex                                
Male                                
White 30.2   22.3   35.3   25.7   28.2   20.2   32.7   24.6  
Black 39.8   33.0   44.8   19.9   44.9   36.5   49.7   34.5  
Hispanic 36.5   26.2   43.5   23.7   39.9   31.6   44.9   33.7  
Asian 36.0   28.3   40.1   44.0   35.2   21.9   40.9   36.1  
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 40.4     47.6     35.8     40.9    
American Indian/Alaska Native 33.3   24.0   40.2     32.5   28.3   34.0    
Two or more races 30.5   17.7   38.8   23.3   26.5   19.0   30.8    
                                 
Female                                
White 32.9   27.3   36.9   25.3   34.0   27.6   38.6   23.8  
Black 42.0   38.5   46.7   25.0   45.3   39.0   50.5   30.2  
Hispanic 38.2   29.3   45.5   26.1   45.6   42.8   51.2   27.4  
Asian 42.6   29.2   51.6   27.4   40.7   33.1   44.8   36.7  
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 41.0     41.2     43.9     48.6    
American Indian/Alaska Native 50.8   26.7 ! 61.3   25.7   61.0   44.6   71.6   27.1 !
Two or more races 36.4   31.9   41.5   22.4   37.1   33.0   41.3   16.9  
! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 30 percent or greater.
‡ Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1Total includes other racial/ethnic groups not shown separately in the table.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Data weighted by WTA000.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2003–04 and 2007–08 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:04 and NPSAS:08).
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