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Table E-1-1.  Percentage of children under age 18 living in poverty, by living arrangements, sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity: 2005 and 2010

Sex, race/ethnicity, and nativity All children related to householder   Living arrangement  
  2005   2010
2005   2010   Married parents   Female parent, no spouse present   Male parent, no spouse present   Married parents   Female parent, no spouse present   Male parent, no spouse present  
Total1 18.3   21.1   8.8   42.3   21.4   10.8   44.1   26.0  
Sex                                
Male 18.0   21.0   8.8   42.1   20.8   10.7   44.4   25.5  
Female 18.5   21.3   8.9   42.4   22.1   10.9   43.8   26.7  
                                 
Race/ethnicity                                
White 10.4   12.7   5.3   31.8   15.4   6.6   35.1   19.6  
Black 35.5   37.8   12.9   49.7   30.2   14.5   51.3   34.8  
Hispanic 29.2   31.9   19.9   50.6   26.8   22.3   49.6   31.9  
Asian 12.1   12.2   8.8   32.4   20.8   9.5   29.3   21.7  
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 21.5   22.0   16.1   38.0     18.9   33.2   17.0  
American Indian/Alaska Native2 29.9   34.0   17.0   46.7   33.1   18.6   50.2   39.1  
American Indian 30.2   35.5   16.3   47.5   35.4   19.1   52.8   38.9  
Alaska Native 24.3   24.6   16.5   35.5   36.3 ! 13.5   36.4   27.6 !
Two or more races 19.1   21.3   7.1   39.8   23.1   8.7   41.3   24.7  
                                 
Race/ethnicity by sex                                
Male                                
White 10.4   12.6   5.3   31.8   15.3   6.5   35.5   19.5  
Black 34.9   37.6   12.9   49.1   28.4   13.8   51.7   33.3  
Hispanic 28.9   31.7   19.8   50.5   26.3   22.2   49.5   31.4  
Asian 12.6   12.4   9.0   36.3   19.8   9.9   29.4   18.9  
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 21.2   21.0   16.0   39.3     19.4   28.8   13.9 !
American Indian/Alaska Native2 31.0   35.1   18.9   48.7   28.2   19.8   50.4   41.3  
American Indian 30.7   37.1   18.0   48.7   29.0   21.0   52.6   41.2  
Alaska Native 26.5   25.5   19.4   36.2   36.9 ! 13.4   36.3   36.1 !
Two or more races 18.7   21.5   6.7   39.8   22.3   8.6   42.3   25.0  
                                 
Female                                
White 10.5   12.7   5.3   31.8   15.6   6.6   34.7   19.7  
Black 36.2   38.1   12.9   50.4   32.4   15.2   51.0   36.5  
Hispanic 29.5   32.1   20.0   50.6   27.3   22.4   49.6   32.4  
Asian 11.6   12.0   8.5   28.8   22.0   9.1   29.2   25.2  
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 21.9   23.1   16.2   36.6     18.3   38.9   21.3 !
American Indian/Alaska Native2 28.8   32.8   15.1   44.8   39.2   17.3   50.0   36.4  
American Indian 29.7   33.9   14.6   46.2   43.1   17.2   53.0   35.9  
Alaska Native 22.0   23.6   13.8   34.9   35.6 ! 13.7   36.4   18.2 !
Two or more races 19.6   21.0   7.5   39.8   24.1   8.8   40.3   24.4  
                                 
Nativity                                
Hispanic                                
Born within the United
   States3
28.2   31.3   18.2   49.9   26.4   21.2   49.3   31.4  
Born outside of the
   United States
36.5   38.8   31.7   57.7   28.9   33.5   54.0   36.8  
! Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 30 percent or greater.  
‡ Reporting standards not met (too few cases).
1 Total includes other racial/ethnic groups not shown separately in the table.
2 Includes persons reporting American Indian only, Alaska Native only, and persons from American Indian and/or Alaska Native tribes specified or not specified.
3 Born within the United States includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, the U.S. Virgin Islands, the Northern Marianas, and those born abroad of American parents.
NOTE: To determine living arrangements, children are classified by either their parents' marital status or, if no parents are present in the household, by the marital status of the related householder. Poverty information was available only for children who were related to the householder. Therefore, this table excludes any children who were not related to the householder or who are recorded as the householder or spouse of the householder. To define poverty, the U.S. Census Bureau utilizes a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. A family, along with each individual in it, is considered poor if the family’s total income is less than that family’s threshold. The poverty thresholds do not vary geographically and are adjusted annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index. The official poverty definition counts money income before taxes and does not include capital gains and noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps). Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, American Community Survey, 2005 and 2010.
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