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Chapter 8: Multivariate Analyses of Immediate Postsecondary Enrollment and Degree Attainment

Conclusion

This chapter used logistic regression analyses to explore relationships among student, family, and school/ institutional characteristics and two outcomes for recent high school graduates: the likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment and the likelihood of attaining an associate's or bachelor's degree within 6 years of beginning postsecondary education, with a focus on Black and Hispanic males. For males overall, the likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment was higher for males with higher socioeconomic status, a higher 9th-grade GPA, and higher 10th-grade mathematics achievement scores, as well as higher for those who participated in multiple high school sports and extracurricular activities and those who often discussed school courses with their parents (table ELS-2). In contrast, the likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment was lower for males who worked more than 20 hours per week while enrolled in high school. In subgroup analyses of White, Black, and Hispanic males, higher 10th-grade mathematics achievement scores were associated with a greater likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment for all three groups, higher socioeconomic status was associated with a greater likelihood of immediate enrollment for White and Black males, and a higher 9th-grade GPA was associated with a greater likelihood of immediate enrollment for White and Hispanic males (table ELS-3).

Factors associated with a higher likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment for females overall included higher socioeconomic status, a higher 9th-grade GPA, and higher 10th-grade mathematics achievement scores, as well as higher for those who participated in multiple high school sports and extracurricular activities and those who often discussed school courses with their parents (table ELS-2). In contrast, the likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment was lower for females who missed 7 or more days of school during the first term of the year and for those who worked more than 20 hours per week while enrolled in high school. In subgroup analyses of White, Black, and Hispanic females, higher 9th-grade GPA was associated with a greater likelihood of immediate postsecondary enrollment for all three groups, higher 10th-grade mathematics achievement scores were associated with a greater likelihood of immediate enrollment for White and Hispanic females, and higher socioeconomic status was associated with a greater likelihood of immediate enrollment for White females (table ELS-3).

Factors associated with a higher likelihood of associate's or bachelor's degree attainment by June 2009 for males overall included higher socioeconomic status, completion of algebra II/trigonometry or precalculus/calculus courses in high school, earning college-level credits in high school, taking the SAT or ACT exam, beginning in a 4-year postsecondary institution, declaring a major in the first year, participating in school clubs in the first year at their institutions, and always being enrolled full time (table BPS-2). In contrast, the likelihood for degree attainment within 6 years was lower for males who worked 20 or more hours per week and those who stopped out of their postsecondary programs at least one time. Many of the relationships between these factors and degree attainment for males overall were also observed for White males (table BPS-3). In subgroup analysis of Black males, those from the highest income quartile and those who were always enrolled full time at their institutions were more likely than other Black males to attain a degree within 6 years of entry. For Hispanic males, those who first attended a 4-year postsecondary institution were more likely to have attained a degree within 6 years than those who started in less-than-4-year institutions.

Factors associated with a higher likelihood of associate's or bachelor's degree attainment by June 2009 for females overall included higher socioeconomic status, having a parent who completed a bachelor's or higher degree, completion of precalculus/calculus courses in high school, earning college-level credits in high school, beginning in a 4-year postsecondary institution, meeting with their college advisor in their first year, participating in school clubs in the first year at their institutions, and always being enrolled full time (table BPS-2). In contrast, the likelihood for degree attainment within 6 years was lower for females who started their postsecondary education at private for-profit institutions and those who stopped out of their postsecondary programs at least one time. Many of the relationships between these factors and degree attainment for females overall were also observed for White females (table BPS-3). In subgroup analysis of Black females, those who had a parent who completed a bachelor's degree or higher and those who participated in clubs in their first year were more likely than other Black females to attain a degree within 6 years of entry. For Hispanic females, those who were always enrolled full time in their postsecondary programs were more likely to have attained a degree within 6 years than Hispanic females who did not always attend full time. The likelihood for degree attainment within 6 years was lower for Hispanic females who started their postsecondary education at private for-profit institutions and those who stopped out of their postsecondary programs at least one time.

In addition, some student, family, and school/institutional factors were related to a higher likelihood of both outcomes—immediate postsecondary enrollment and degree attainment within 6 years of beginning postsecondary education—for students overall (tables ELS-2 and BPS-2). These factors included being female, having a higher socioeconomic status, participation in extracurricular activities or school clubs, and not working more than 20 hours per week.

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