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Chapter 3: Student Behaviors and Afterschool Activities

Indicator 11: Retention, Suspension, and Expulsion

In 2009, a higher percentage of male than female 9th-grade students had ever been retained in any grade (kindergarten through 9). Also, compared with their female peers, higher percentages of White, Black, and Hispanic male 9th-grade students had ever been suspended or expelled. For example, 42 percent of Black males versus 24 percent of Black females had ever been suspended or expelled.

In 2009, according to parent reports, 13 percent of 9th- grade students had been retained in any of grades from kindergarten through 9. Three percent of 9th-grade students had ever had a lapse in school attendance (times when the child stopped going to school for a period of a month or more other than for illness, injury or vacation) and 15 percent had ever been suspended or expelled. The percentage of 9th-grade students whose parents had ever been contacted by their school regarding problem behavior at school was 27 percent. In addition, 19 percent of students had ever had their parents contacted regarding poor attendance at school, and 27 percent had ever had their parents contacted about poor academic performance.

A higher percentage of male than female 9th-grade students had ever been retained in any grade by 2009 (15 vs. 10 percent). This difference was also observed among White and Hispanic males and females (11 vs. 8 percent and 20 vs. 10 percent, respectively), although no measurable differences by sex were found for the other racial/ethnic groups. The percentage of 9th-grade students who had ever been retained was higher among students who were American Indian/Alaska Native (27 percent), Black (25 percent), and Hispanic (15 percent) than among their White (10 percent) and Asian peers (3 percent) and their peers of two or more races (11 percent). In addition, the percentage of Blacks who had ever been retained was higher than that for Hispanics and the percentages of Whites and students of two or more races were higher than that for Asians. Similar patterns by race/ethnicity were also found among both male and female students.

In 2009, about 19 percent of 9th-grade males had ever been suspended or expelled, compared with 10 percent of 9th-grade females. Higher percentages of White, Black, and Hispanic male students than female students had ever been suspended or expelled. For example, 42 percent of Black males versus 24 percent of Black females had ever been suspended or expelled, a difference of 18 percentage points. Across racial/ethnic groups, suspension or expulsion percentages were higher among Black students (32 percent), American Indian/Alaska Native students (28 percent), and students of two or more races (23 percent) than among their White (10 percent), Hispanic (15 percent), and Asian peers (6 percent). These percentages were also higher for Hispanic students than for White and Asian students. Similar patterns by race/ ethnicity were also found among both male and female students.

Thirty-five percent of 9th-grade male students' parents had ever been contacted by their school about problem behavior at school, compared with 19 percent of their female peers. Higher percentages of males than females had reports of problem behavior at school in all racial/ ethnic groups except for American Indian/Alaska Natives, for whom there was no measurable difference due to small sample sizes. For instance, the percentage of Black males with reports of problem behavior was 58 percent, compared with 37 percent for Black females. In terms of overall racial/ethnic differences, Black students had a higher percentage of reported problem behavior at school (46 percent) than did their White (20 percent), Hispanic (33 percent), and Asian (13 percent) peers as well as their peers of two or more races (32 percent). Additionally, higher percentages of Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native students (44 percent), and students of two or more races had parents who had been contacted by the school about their problem behavior than did their White and Asian peers. Patterns among males and females by race/ethnicity were generally similar to the overall pattern.

In 2009, a higher percentage of 9th-grade males than females had ever had a parent contacted about their poor academic performance (34 vs. 20 percent). This difference by sex was also found for Whites, Blacks, Hispanics, and students of two or more races. For example, 45 percent of Black males had had a parent contacted about their poor academic performance, compared with 28 percent of their female counterparts. Regarding overall racial/ ethnic differences in parent contact for poor academic performance, the percentages were higher for Blacks (35 percent), Hispanics (29 percent), American Indian/ Alaska Natives (50 percent), and students of two or more races (34 percent) than for Whites (23 percent) and Asians (11 percent). Racial/ethnic patterns of parent contact for poor academic performance for males and females were generally similar to the overall pattern by race/ethnicity.

Technical Notes

Data are based on parent responses. The total percentage of students ever retained in any grade (kindergarten through 9) includes responses from parents who did not indicate the specific grade(s) at which their child was retained.

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Figure 11-1 Percentage of 9th-grade students who had ever been retained in any of grades kindergarten through 9, by race/ethnicity and sex: 2009

Figure 11-2 Percentage of 9th-grade students who had ever been suspended or expelled, by race/ethnicity and sex: 2009

Table E-11-1 Percentage of 9th-grade students who had ever been retained in a grade, by grade level, sex, and race/ethnicity: 2009

Table E-11-2 Percentage of 9th-grade students who had ever experienced various discipline or attendance issues, by sex and race/ethnicity: 2009


  
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