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- Selected Findings
- List of Tables
- List of Figures
- Readers Guide
- Chapter 1. Demographics
- Chapter 2. School-Related Characteristics
- 8. School Enrollment
- 9. High School Enrollment
- 10. High School Mathematics and Science Coursetaking
- 11. Advanced Placement (AP) Participation
- 12. Reading and Mathematics Proficiency of 13- and 17-year-olds
- 13. International Reading, Mathematics, and Science Achievement
- 14. Suspensions and Expulsions of High School Students
- 15. High School Status Dropout Rates
- 16. College Readiness
- 17. Immediate Transition to College
- 18. Undergraduate College Enrollment
- 19. College Costs
- 20. Financial Aid
- 21. Federal Aid
- 22. Time to Completion for Undergraduate Students
- 23. International College Graduation Rates
- 24. School Completion and Educational Attainment

- Chapter 3. Employment-Related Characteristics
- Chapter 4. Activities Outside of School and Work
- Chapter 5. Health and Wellness
- Chapter 6. Future Goals
- References
- Appendix A. Technical Note and Guide to Sources
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Indicator 12. Reading and Mathematics Proficiency of 13- and 17-year-olds

The long-term trend National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) has provided information on the achievement of 13- and 17-year-olds in the United States every 2 to 5 years since 1971 for reading and 1973 for mathematics.^{5} The content of these assessments is designed to measure the same knowledge and skills to allow for comparisons over a long period of time.

Between 1980 and 2008, there was no significant change in the overall reading scores of 13-year-olds, nor was there a measurable difference between the overall reading scores in 2004 and 2008. In 2008, female 13-year-olds had higher reading scores than their male counterparts (264 vs. 256). Also, in 2008, Asian/Pacific Islander 13-year-olds had higher reading scores (278) than their White (268), American Indian/Alaska Native (250), Black (247), and Hispanic (242) counterparts. White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander 13-year-olds had higher average reading scores in 2008 than in 1980. In terms of parents' educational level, those 13-year-olds in 2008 whose parents had at least a college degree had higher reading scores (270) than those whose parents had attended, but not graduated from college (265); those whose parents had graduated from high school (251); and those whose parents had not graduated from high school (239).^{6}

There was also no significant overall change in the reading scores of 17-year-olds between 1980 and 2008, nor was there a measurable difference between the overall reading scores in 2004 and 2008. Again, in 2008, female 17-year-olds had higher reading scores (291) than males (280). In 2008, White and Asian/Pacific Islander 17-year-olds had higher reading scores (295 each) than their American Indian/Alaska Native (281), Hispanic (269), and Black (266) counterparts. Among 17-year-olds, Black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander students had higher average reading scores in 2008 than in 1980. The 2008 reading scores of 17-year-olds whose parents had graduated from college (298) were higher than the scores of those whose parents had attended, but not graduated from college (288); those whose parents had graduated from high school (274); and those whose parents had not graduated from high school (266).

Between 1982 and 2008, the mathematics scores of 13-year-olds increased by 12 points, from 269 to 281, but there was no measurable difference between 2004 and 2008. In 2008, male 13-year-olds had higher mathematics scores than their female counterparts (284 vs. 279). Also, in 2008, Asian/Pacific Islander 13-year-olds had higher mathematics scores (304) than their White (290), American Indian/Alaska Native (274), Hispanic (268), and Black (262) counterparts. These average mathematics scores represented an increase for White, Black, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander 13-year-olds over their average scores in 1982. In terms of parents' educational level, those 13-year-olds in 2008 whose parents had graduated from college had higher mathematics scores (291) than those whose parents had attended, but not graduated from college (285); those whose parents had graduated from high school (272); and those whose parents had not graduated from high school (268).

The mathematics scores of 17-year-olds increased by 8 points between 1982 and 2008, from 298 to 306, but there was no measurable difference between 2004 and 2008. Again, in 2008, male 17-year-olds had higher mathematics scores than did females (309 vs. 303). In 2008, Asian/Pacific Islander 17-year-olds had higher mathematics scores (321) than their White (314), American Indian/Alaska Native (305), Hispanic (293), and Black (287) counterparts. The average mathematics scores for 17-year-olds increased between 1982 and 2008 for Whites, Hispanics, and Asians/Pacific Islanders. The average mathematics score for Black 17-year-olds was higher in 2008 than it was in 1982, although there was no linear trend over the time period. The 2008 mathematics scores of 17-year-olds whose parents had graduated from college (316) were higher than the scores of those whose parents had attended, but not graduated from college (306); those whose parents had graduated from high school (296); and those whose parents had not graduated from high school (292).

View Table 12a

View Table 12b

View Figure 12a

View Figure 12b