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Trends in the Use of School Choice: 1993 to 2007
NCES 2010-004
April 2010


Table 1.

Percentage of students enrolled in grades 112, by public and private school type and student and household characteristics: 1993, 1996, 1999, 2003, and 2007


Student and household characteristics School type
Public, assigned   Public, chosen   Private, religious   Private, nonsectarian
1993 1996 1999 2003 2007   1993 1996 1999 2003 2007   1993 1996 1999 2003 2007   1993 1996 1999 2003 2007  
Total 80 76 76 74 73   11 14 14 15 16   8 8 7 8 9   2 2 2 2 3  
                                                 
Sex                                                
Male 81 76 76 74 73   11 13 14 15 16   7 8 7 8 8   2 3 2 2 3  
Female 79 76 75 74 73   11 14 15 15 15   8 8 8 9 9   2 2 2 2 2  
                                                 
Race/ethnicity1                                                
White 81 77 77 75 74   9 11 11 13 13   9 9 9 10 11   2 3 3 3 3  
Black 77 73 71 68 69   19 22 23 24 24   3 4 4 6 6   1 1 2 2 2  
Hispanic 79 76 77 78 76   14 16 18 15 17   6 6 4 6 6   1 1 1 1 1  
Asian or Pacific Islander 68 74   19 14   9 7   4 5  
Other race 72 72   20 20   6 6   3 3  
                                                 
Grade level                                                
Grades 1–5 79 74 74 72 71   12 15 15 17 17   8 9 9 10 9   1 2 2 2 3  
Grades 6–8 81 79 79 75 77   10 11 12 15 12   7 7 7 8 9   1 2 2 2 2  
Grades 9–12 81 76 77 76 73   11 14 16 14 16   6 7 5 7 9   2 3 2 3 2  
                                                 
Disability status                                                
Has a disability 76 74 76   16 17 15   6 6 7   2 3 2  
Does not have a disability 76 74 73   14 15 16   8 9 9   2 2 3  
                                                 
Poverty status2                                                
Poor 83 78 77 78 78   14 18 19 18 19   3 3 3 3 2   # 1 2 1 1  
Near-poor 83 79 78 77 78   11 14 16 17 16   6 6 5 5 5   1 1 1 2 1  
Nonpoor 77 74 75 71 70   10 12 12 14 14   11 11 10 12 12   3 3 3 3 4  
                                                 
Parents' highest level of education3                                                
Less than high school diploma or GED 84 79 80 78 85   14 17 18 20 12   2 2 2 2 2   # 2 1 1 1  
High school diploma or GED 84 82 80 79 80   11 12 14 16 15   5 5 4 4 4   1 1 1 1 1  
Some college/vocational/technical 80 76 77 76 75   11 15 15 16 16   8 7 6 7 7   1 2 1 2 1  
Bachelor's degree 76 71 72 69 71   9 13 13 14 15   12 13 13 14 12   3 3 3 3 2  
Graduate/professional school 73 66 68 66 62   10 13 13 14 16   13 15 13 14 15   4 6 6 6 7  
                                                 
Family structure                                                
Two parents 80 76 77 74 73   9 12 12 14 14   9 10 8 10 10   2 2 3 3 3  
One parent 79 75 74 74 75   15 18 18 18 18   5 5 5 5 5   1 2 2 2 2  
Nonparent guardians 84 80 73 75 73   14 15 22 20 23   2 2 4 4 4   1 3 1 2 1  
                                                 
Region                                                
Northeast 78 74 74 74 72   9 13 14 12 13   11 9 9 11 11   2 4 4 4 3  
South 82 79 78 76 75   11 13 14 16 14   5 6 6 6 8   2 2 2 2 2  
Midwest 80 75 76 72 74   10 12 13 14 15   9 11 9 12 10   1 1 1 2 1  
West 79 74 75 74 71   13 18 18 19 20   7 6 5 6 6   1 2 2 2 3  
                                                 
Locale                                                
City 63   23   10   4  
Suburb 75   12   11   2  
Town 81   12   5   1  
Rural 82   12   5   1 !
— Not available. Comparable variables are not available on the datafiles in the survey years noted.
# Rounds to zero.
! Interpret data with caution; the estimates are unstable; coefficient of variation is 30 percent or more.
1 Black includes African American, Pacific Islander includes Native Hawaiian, and Hispanic includes Latino. The Other race category includes students who are not Hispanic, who reported their race as either “American Indian or Alaska Native” or reported more than one race. Race categories exclude Hispanic origin unless specified.
2 Poor students are defined as those with household incomes below 100 percent of the poverty threshold; near-poor students as those with household incomes from 100 through 199 percent of the poverty threshold; and nonpoor students as those with household incomes at or above 200 percent of the poverty threshold.
3 GED is General Educational Development.
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, School Readiness Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES), 1993; School Safety and Discipline Survey of the NHES, 1993; Parent & Family Involvement in Education Survey of the NHES, 1996; Parent Survey of the NHES,1999; Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey of the NHES, 2003; and Parent and Family Involvement Survey of the NHES, 2007.
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