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Status and Trends in the Education of Racial and Ethnic Minorities
NCES 2007-039
September 2007

Appendix C: Guide to Sources

The indicators in this report present data from a variety of sources. The sources and their definitions of key terms are described below. Most of these sources are federal surveys and many are conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The majority of the sources are sample surveys; these are the sources of the estimates for which standard errors are provided on the NCES website: http://nces.ed.gov/. A few sources are universe surveys, meaning that they collect information on the entire population of interest, and therefore there are no standard errors because there is no error introduced by sampling. All of the definitions of key terms appear after the description of the data source to which they apply.

Some of the indicators in this report use different data sources or different definitions of terms to present estimates on similar variables. It is important to note that comparisons between estimates with such differences should be made with caution, if at all, because differences in populations, methodologies, question phrasing, and other factors may compromise such comparisons.

American College Testing Program (ACT)

The College Board

U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau

U.S. Department of Education

National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

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American College Testing Program (ACT)

The American College Testing Program (ACT) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides services in the broad areas of education and workforce development. ACT scores represent a self-selecting sample, and are therefore not necessarily representative of the population as a whole.

Students taking the ACT college entrance exam are asked to self-select one of the following racial/ethnic groups to describe themselves: African-American/Black, American Indian/Alaskan Native, Caucasian-American/White, Mexican-American/Chicano, Asian-American/Pacific Islander, Puerto Rican/Hispanic, Other, Multiracial, or "Prefer Not to Respond".

Indicator 14.2 includes data on the ACT, presented for the following mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories: White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Mexican-American, Puerto Rican/other Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). Since students could only select one racial/ethnic category, all persons of Hispanic origin are included in one of the two Hispanic categories, regardless of race. Data for students who selected Other, Multiracial, or "Prefer Not to Respond" are not separately shown, but these data are included in the totals.

For more information on the ACT, see http://www.act.org/news/data.html.

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The College Board

The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college success and opportunity. The College Board conducts the SAT and Advanced Placement (AP) testing. As with the ACT, scores on tests conducted by the College Board are not necessarily representative of the population as a whole as test-takers are self-selected.

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Advanced Placement (AP) Program

Students taking an AP test are asked to select one of the following categories to describe their race/ethnicity: American Indian/Alaskan; Asian/Asian American; Black/Afro-American; Latino: Chicano/Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Latino; White; and Other.

Indicator 13 presents data from the AP program, and presents data on the following mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories: White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). The category Hispanic includes the Chicano/Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Latino categories listed above. Since students could only select one racial/ethnic category, all persons of Hispanic origin are included in the Hispanic category, regardless of race. Data for students who selected Other are not separately shown, but these data are included in the totals.

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SAT

Students taking the SAT are asked to select one of the following categories to describe their race/ethnicity: American Indian or Alaskan Native; Asian, Asian American, or Pacific Islander; African American or Black; Latino: Chicano/Mexican, Puerto Rican, and Other Latino; White; and Other.

Indicator 14.1 reports SAT data. This indicator uses the following mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories: White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Other Hispanic/Latino, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). Since students could only select one racial/ethnic category, all persons of Hispanic origin are included in one of the three Hispanic categories, regardless of race. Data for students who selected Other are not separately shown, but these data are included in the totals.

For more information on the College Board, see http://www.collegeboard.com/research/home/.

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U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau

American Community Survey (ACS)

The American Community Survey (ACS) is a sample survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. The ACS was first implemented in 1996 and has expanded in scope in subsequent years. The ACS will replace the long-form survey in the Decennial Census by 2010.

The race/ethnicity questions in the ACS are the same as in the Decennial Census (see below). Therefore, prior to 1999, respondents could choose only one race, but from 2000 on respondents could choose one or more races. The ACS also asks respondents to write in their ancestry or ethnic origin.

Indicators 2, 3, 4, 8.2, 17, and 26.2 report ACS data. Indicators 2, 3, 4 and 9.2 present the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian (non-Hispanic), Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic), and More than one race (non-Hispanic). All persons of Hispanic origin are included in the Hispanic category regardless of the race option(s) chosen. Therefore, persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on persons who identified themselves as "Some other race" are included in the totals, but these data are not separately shown.

Indicators 2, 4, 8.2, 17, and 26.2 include "Snapshots" that provide statistics on more detailed ancestry subgroups for Hispanics and Asians. Due to sample size limitations, several subgroups have been combined into broader categories. The Hispanic ancestry categories presented in this report are Mexican, Puerto Rican, Dominican, Central American (includes Costa Rican, Guatemalan, Honduran, Nicaraguan, Panamanian, Salvadoran, and Other Central American), South American (includes Argentinean, Bolivian, Chilean, Colombian, Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Uruguayan, Venezuelan, and Other South American), and Other Hispanic or Latino (includes Cuban, Spaniard, and All Other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino). The Asian categories presented in this report are Asian Indian, Chinese, Filipino, Japanese, Korean, Vietnamese, and Other Asian (includes Bangladeshi, Cambodian, Hmong, Indonesian, Laotian, Malaysian, Pakastani, Sri Lankan, Thai, and Other Asian).

For more information on the American Community survey, see http://www.census.gov/acs/www/index.html.

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Current Population Survey (CPS)

The Current Population Survey (CPS) is a monthly sample survey of about 50,000 households conducted by the Census Bureau for the Bureau of Labor Statistics to obtain information on the labor force characteristics of the U.S. population. Supplementary questions can be added to the CPS interview in a particular month to gather in-depth information on specific aspects of the labor force or other topics. For example, the Annual Social and Economic Supplement in March includes questions on income and work experience.

CPS respondents are asked to identify their race. Between 1979 and 2002, respondents were asked to choose one of the following race categories: White, Black, Asian or Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Aleut/Eskimo. For the years 2003, 2004, and 2005, respondents were asked to choose from White, Black or African American, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and/or American Indian/Alaska Native. Beginning with the 2003 CPS, respondents had the choice of selecting more than one race category. Also, in 2003 and subsequent years, respondents were asked to specify whether or not they were of Hispanic origin following the race question.

Indicators 5, 17, 19.1, 19.2, 23.3, 26, 27, and 28 use data from the CPS. In each of these indicators, data are presented for the following mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories: White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). All persons of Hispanic origin are included in the Hispanic category regardless of the race option(s) chosen. Therefore, persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. In all of these indicators except indicator 27, data for the categories Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander are combined for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005 in order to provide continuity with previous years of data and in order for cell sizes to meet reporting standards. In table 27a data for the Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander categories are shown separately, due to the fact that the table shows only one year of data and has a larger population than other tables (persons 16 years old and over). For 2003 and subsequent years, data on persons of more than one race are not separately shown, but these data are included in the totals.

For more information on the CPS, see http://www.bls.census.gov/cps/.

CPS terms:

Unemployed
Civilians who had no employment, but were available for work and (1) had engaged in any specific job-seeking activity within the past 4 weeks; (2) were waiting to be called back to a job from which they had been laid off; or (3) were waiting to report to a new wage or salary job within 30 days.

Status dropout rate
The percentage of 16- to 24-year-olds who are out of school and who have not earned a high school credential. The status dropout rate is different from the event dropout rate, which is the percentage of 15- to 24-year-olds who dropped out of grades 10 through 12 in the 12 months preceding the fall of each data collection year.

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Decennial Census

The Decennial Census is a universe survey mandated by the U.S. Constitution. It is a questionnaire sent to every household in the country, composed of seven questions about the household and its members (name, sex, age, relationship, Hispanic origin, race, and whether the housing unit is owned or rented). About 17 percent of households receive a much longer questionnaire including questions about ancestry, income, mortgage, and size of the housing unit. The Census Bureau also produces annual estimates of the resident population by demographic characteristics (age, sex, race, and Hispanic origin) for the nation, states, and counties, as well as national and state projections for the resident population. The reference date for population estimates is July 1 of the given year. With each new issue of July 1 estimates, Census revises estimates for each year back to the last census. Previously published estimates are superseded and archived.

Census respondents self-report race and ethnicity. In the 2000 Census, they were first asked "Is this person Spanish/Hispanic/Latino?" and given the options "No, not Spanish/Hispanic/Latino," "Yes, Puerto Rican," "Yes, Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano," "Yes, Cuban," and "Yes, other Spanish/Hispanic/Latino" (with space to print the group). The next question was "What is this person's race?" and the options were "White," "Black, African American, or Negro," "American Indian or Alaska Native" (with space to print the name of enrolled or principal tribe), "Asian Indian," "Japanese," "Native Hawaiian," "Chinese," "Korean," "Guamanian or Chamorro," "Filipino," "Vietnamese," "Samoan," "Other Asian," "Other Pacific Islander," and "Some other race". The last three options included space to print the specific race. The 2000 Census was also the first time that respondents were given the option of choosing more than one race. The Census population estimates program modified the enumerated population from the 2000 Census to produce the population estimates base for the year 2000 forward. As part of the modification, they recoded the "Some other race" responses from Census 2000 to one or more of the five OMB race categories used in the estimates program (U.S. Department of Commerce 2005).

Indicators 1 and 2 use data from the Decennial Census and population estimates and projections. Table 1a and the 1990 data in table 2a include the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). Table 1a also presents data for the category More than one race (non-Hispanic) for the year 2000 on. Prior to 2000, the Census Bureau combined the categories Asian and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander. These two categories are combined for the years 2000 forward in table 1a to provide continuity with previous years of data. Tables 1b and 1c present data from 2005 only, and therefore these categories are shown separately. All persons of Hispanic origin were included in the Hispanic category regardless of the race option(s) chosen. Therefore, persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

For more information, see www.census.gov.

Decennial Census terms:

Native
Born in the United States or a U.S. territory, or born outside the country to U.S. citizens.

Foreign-born
Born outside of the United States and its territories to parents who were not U.S. citizens.

Poverty
To define poverty, the U.S. Census Bureau utilizes a set of money income thresholds that vary by family size and composition. A family, along with each individual in it, is considered poor if the family's total income is less than that family's threshold. The poverty thresholds do not vary geographically and are updated annually for inflation using the Consumer Price Index. The official poverty definition counts money income before taxes and does not include capital gains and noncash benefits (such as public housing, Medicaid, and food stamps).

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U.S. Department of Education

Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)

The Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP) assesses progress in implementing the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA), including state and local efforts to provide (1) free and appropriate public education to children with disabilities and (2) early intervention services to infants and toddlers with disabilities. Prior to the IDEA Amendments of 1997, disabled children enrolled by their parents in private schools were also required to have IEPs. Beginning in 1997, parentally placed private school children were required to have "service plans," rather than IEPs, to denote the fact that "IEP" is a term used in the definition of "Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE)," which does not apply to families who choose to place their children in private schools. Children who are placed in or referred to private schools by a public agency are still required to have IEPs (U.S. Department of Education, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services 1999, 2000).

States are required to report counts of children who have IEPs or service plans. Each child can only be reported in one of the following race/ethnicity categories: American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian or Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic, and White. Since children may only be reported in one category, all children of Hispanic origin are reported as Hispanic, regardless of race, and are not included in any of the four race categories.

Indicator 8.1 reports OSEP data. The mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories are White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic).

For more information about OSEP, see http://www.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/index.html.

OSEP terms:

Child with a disability
This term refers to a child ". . . having mental retardation, a hearing impairment including deafness, a speech or language impairment, a visual impairment including blindness, serious emotional disturbance (hereafter referred to as emotional disturbance), an orthopedic impairment, autism, traumatic brain injury, another health impairment, a specific learning disability, deaf-blindness, or multiple disabilities, and who, by reason thereof, needs special education and related services." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(a)(1))

Specific learning disability
". . . a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, of emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(10))

Mental retardation
". . . significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(6))

Speech or language impairment
". . . a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(11))

Hearing impairment
". . . an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this section." Although children and youth with deafness are not included in the definition of hearing impairment, they are counted in the hearing impairment category. (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(5))

Visual impairment including blindness
". . . an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(13))

Autism
". . . a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as defined in paragraph (b)(4) of this section." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(1)(i))

Emotional disturbance (previously termed serious emotional disturbance)
"The term means a condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance: (A) An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors; (B) An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers; (C) Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances; (D) A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression; or (E) A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance." (34 Code of Federal Regulations 300.7(c)(4))

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National Center for Education Statistics (NCES)

Common Core of Data (CCD), Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey

The Common Core of Data (CCD) is a universe survey database with comprehensive, annually updated information. The Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey compiles data from state education agencies based on school records to provide a complete listing of all public elementary and secondary schools in the country and basic information and descriptive statistics on all schools, their students, and their teachers. CCD data include prekindergarten through 12th-grade schools and students.

CCD categories for student race/ethnicity are White, Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native. All students of Hispanic origin are included in the Hispanic category regardless of their race.

Indicators 7.1, 7.2, 7.3 and 7.5 report CCD data. The mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories presented in these indicators are White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic).

For more information on the CCD, see http://nces.ed.gov/ccd/index.asp.

CCD terms:

Locale
A school's locale is classified based on its address, according to a mix of classifications from the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the Census Bureau. The Census Bureau updated its classification system after the 2000 Decennial Census, and the CCD adopted these new standards for the 2002-03 data collection. The locale category definitions for data from 2002-03 on are therefore slightly different from the definitions for data before 2002-03.

Central city
Large or midsize city of a Metropolitan Area (MA) for 1993 and 2000 data; large or midsize principal city of a metro area (as redefined by OMB) for 2003 data.

Urban fringe
Area outside of a central city but within its MA for 1993 and 2000 data; area outside of a principal city, but within its metro area for 2003 data.

Town
An incorporated place or Census-designated place with a population of 2,500 people or more located outside an MA for 1993 and 2000 data and outside a metro area for 2003 data.

Rural
A place defined by the Census Bureau as rural that is located within or outside a MA for 1993 and 2000 data and within or outside a metro area for 2003 data.

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Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) of 2002

The Education Longitudinal Study (ELS) is a survey that monitors the transitions of a national sample of young people as they progress from 10th grade to, eventually, the world of work. ELS obtains information from students, their school records, and their parents, teachers, librarians, and school administrators.

The ELS student questionnaire asks students to self-report race/ethnicity. Students are first asked whether they are Hispanic or Latino/Latina. Next, they are asked to select any of the following race categories that apply to them: White, Black/African American, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and American Indian or Alaska Native.

Indicators 18 reports data from the ELS:2002 base year, and indicator 12 reports data from the ELS:2002 first follow-up in 2004. Both indicators present data on the mutually exclusive categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic), and More than one race (non-Hispanic). For the purposes of indicator 12, "high school" is defined as grades 9 through 12.

For more information on ELS, see http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/els2002/.

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Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS)

The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) and the postsecondary survey that preceded it, the Higher Education General Information Survey (HEGIS), are systems of universe surveys that collect data from all primary providers of postsecondary education in the United States. The surveys collect institution-level data in such areas as enrollments, program completions, faculty, staff, and finances. HEGIS was conducted in 1980, 1984, and 1985, while IPEDS has been conducted annually from 1986 on. This report uses the IPEDS Fall Enrollment survey, Spring survey, and Completions survey.

IPEDS asks institutions to provide enrollment and completion data on students based on the following race/ethnicity categories: Black, non-Hispanic; American Indian/Alaska Native; Asian/Pacific Islander; Hispanic; and White, non-Hispanic. Each student may only be reported in one category.

Indicators 23.1, 23.2, 25.1, and 25.2 use data from IPEDS and its predecessor, HEGIS, with the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). Persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

For more information on HEGIS/IPEDS, see http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/.

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National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

The National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is a nationally representative and continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas. For over three decades, assessments have been conducted periodically in reading, mathematics, science, writing, history, geography, and other subjects.

NAEP reports data on student race/ethnicity based on information obtained from school rosters. Race/ethnicity categories are White, Black, Hispanic, Asian American/Pacific Islander, American Indian, and unclassified. NAEP also provides data on students who were unclassified. All students of Hispanic origin are classified as Hispanic, regardless of race. Information on student eligibility for free or reduced-price lunch (as presented in indicator 8.4), is reported by school administrators in the school background questionnaire.

Indicators 7.4, 10.1, 10.2, and 15 provide data from NAEP, using the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). Data on unclassified students are included in the totals, but these data are not separately shown.

For more information on NAEP, see http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/.

NAEP terms:

Achievement levels
In addition to reporting student scale scores, NAEP reports results in terms of achievement levels, which are intended to measure how well students' actual achievement matches the achievement desired of them in different subjects assessed by NAEP.

Basic
Partial mastery of prerequisite knowledge and skills that are fundamental for proficient work at each grade.

Proficient
Solid academic performance for each grade assessed. Students reaching this level have demonstrated competency over challenging subject matter, including subject-matter knowledge, application of such knowledge to real-world situations, and analytical skills appropriate to the subject matter.

Advanced
Superior performance.

School location
NAEP uses the same locale codes as the CCD to classify schools according to their addresses. NAEP generally collapses these locales into three categories.

Central city
In a large or midsize central (or principal) city.

Urban fringe/large town
In the urban fringe of a large city, midsize city, or a large town, or in a rural area inside of a MA (or metro area).

Rural/small town
In a small town or rural area, outside of a MA (or metro area).

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The National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program

The National Household Education Surveys Program (NHES) was developed by NCES to complement its institutional surveys. This program is the principal mechanism for addressing topics that cannot be addressed in institutional data collections. By collecting data directly from households, NHES enables NCES to gather data on a wide range of issues such as early childhood care and education, children's readiness for school, parent perceptions of school safety and discipline, before- and after-school activities of school-age children, participation in adult and continuing education, parent involvement in education, and civic involvement.

NHES reports data on five race categories: White, Black, Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaska Native, and "some other race." NHES also asked respondents about Hispanic origin; those who were Hispanic were classified as Hispanic, regardless of race. NHES sample sizes for Asian/Pacific Islanders and American Indian/Alaska Natives are relatively small.

Indicators 6 and 16 report NHES data on the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). All persons of Hispanic origin were included in the Hispanic category regardless of race. Therefore, persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race. Data on respondents who reported "some other race" are included in the totals, but these data are not separately shown.

For more information on the NHES Program, see http://nces.ed.gov/nhes/.

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National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS)

The National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) is a comprehensive nationwide study designed to determine how students and their families pay for postsecondary education and describe some demographic and other characteristics of those enrolled. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of students in postsecondary education institutions, including undergraduate, graduate, and first-professional students. Students attending all types and levels of institutions are represented, including public and private not-for-profit and for-profit institutions, less-than-2-year institutions, community colleges, and 4-year colleges and universities. The NPSAS surveys provide information on the cost of postsecondary education, the distribution of financial aid, and the characteristics of both aided and nonaided students and their families.

NPSAS asks students to self-report race/ethnicity. Race/ethnicity categories are White, Black, Hispanic, Asian, American Indian, Pacific Islander, and Other. Students may select more than one race and students of Hispanic origin are classified as Hispanic regardless of race.

Indicator 24 presents NPSAS data for the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), and American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic). Students who selected "Other," or specified more than one race are included in the totals, but these data are not separately shown.

For more information about NPSAS, see http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/npsas/.

NPSAS terms:

Total financial aid
The total amount of financial aid received by a student. Includes grants, loans, work-study, or any other types of aid, as well as loans to parents under the PLUS program and veterans' benefits and military education aid.

Total grants
The total amount of grant and scholarship aid received from any source for the NPSAS year. A grant is a type of student financial aid that does not require repayment or employment. Grants include merit-only scholarships, tuition waivers, and employer tuition reimbursements.

Total loans
The total amount of all student loans (federal, state, institutional, and private sector) and federal PLUS loans to parents received during the NPSAS year. Does not include loans from family or friends to the student or commercial loans to parents (such as home equity loans).

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Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)

Coordinated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) is an international assessment of 15-year-olds' abilities in reading literacy, mathematics literacy, and science literacy, as well as other competencies. Begun in 2000 and currently administered every 3 years, PISA 2000 focused on reading literacy, PISA 2003 focused on mathematics literacy, and PISA 2006 focused on science literacy.

U.S. students in the PISA 2003 assessment were asked to identify themselves as White, non-Hispanic; Black, non-Hispanic; Hispanic; Asian; American Indian/Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, or Other. Students were allowed to select more than one race.

Indicator 11 presents data from PISA, with the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian (non-Hispanic), and More than one race (non-Hispanic). Reporting standards were not met for American Indians/Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians and Other Pacific Islanders, or students who selected "Other;" these groups were included in the totals but not presented separately.

For more information on PISA, see http://nces.ed.gov/surveys/pisa/.

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School Crime Supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (SCS/NCVS)

Created as a supplement to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) and co-designed by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS), the School Crime Supplement (SCS) survey collects information about school-related victimization, crime, and safety. The SCS is a national survey of about 8,300 students ages 12-18 in U.S. public and private elementary, middle, and high schools.

In the NCVS, a question on Hispanic origin is followed by a question on race. Race categories are White, Black, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native. Respondents in 2005 were allowed to specify more than one race. Respondents who identified themselves as Hispanic were classified as Hispanic regardless of their race.

Indicator 22 reports data from the SCS. Table 22a reports the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian (non-Hispanic), Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander (non-Hispanic), American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic), and More than one race (non-Hispanic). Table 22b reports the mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, and Other. The "Other" category in this case includes data on Asians, Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders, American Indians/Alaska Natives, and more than one race which were combined due to data reporting issues for these groups. The locale categories (urban, suburban, and rural) presented in indicator 22 correspond to the categories (central city, urban fringe, and rural) defined for NAEP.

For more information about the SCS, see http://nces.ed.gov/programs/crime/surveys.asp.

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U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

National Vital Statistics System (NVSS)

The NVSS is the method by which data on births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are provided to the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS), part of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), by registration systems in various jurisdictions.

Separate questions are asked about race and Hispanic ethnicity in the NVSS. Data are available for non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks; however, Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native categories include persons of Hispanic origin.

Indicator 21 uses NVSS natality data. Race/ethnicity categories are White, Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, and American Indian/Alaska Native. In order to maintain continuity with previous years of data, all race categories may include persons of Hispanic origin.

For more information on the National Center for Health Statistics and the NVSS, see http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nvss.htm.

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National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) collects information on the prevalence, patterns, and consequences of drug and alcohol use and abuse in the general U.S. civilian noninstitutionalized population age 12 and over. NSDUH is an annual sample survey.

The survey asks separate questions about Hispanic ethnicity and race. Respondents' race options are White, Black/African American, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and Asian. Respondents may choose more than one race.

Indicator 20 uses data from the NSDUH. The mutually exclusive race/ethnicity categories reported are White (non-Hispanic), Black (non-Hispanic), Hispanic, Asian (non-Hispanic), American Indian/Alaska Native (non-Hispanic), and More than one race (non-Hispanic). The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration did not report estimates on drug use for Native Hawaiians or Other Pacific Islanders; therefore data for this race group are included in the totals, but these data are not shown separately in indicator 20.

For more information on the NSDUH, see http://oas.samhsa.gov/nsduh.htm.

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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education