|Table 5. Mean number of hours per week of care for children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten, by arrangement and child and family characteristics: 2005|
|Characteristic||Number of children
|At least one weekly nonparental care arrangement1||Hours spent per week in different types of nonparental care arrangement2|
|Less than 1 year||1,471||31.1||27.2||27.9||32.5|
|Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic||348||32.6||28.4||37.2||26.8|
|Other race, non-Hispanic4||773||31.7||25.6||26.9||26.3|
|Parents’ language spoken most at home5|
|Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English||11,090||29.6||24.0||26.9||24.8|
|One of two parents speaks English||210||26.8||26.3||23.3||25.4|
|No parent speaks English||1,044||27.1||26.7||24.8||23.9|
|Mother’s level of education6|
|Less than a high school||730||27.1||22.9||27.3||25.1|
|Vocational/technical or some college||3,504||29.8||23.3||29.5||25.3|
|Graduate or professional education|
|Mother’s school enrollment status6|
|Mother’s employment status6|
|35 or more hours per week||6,078||37.2||28.7||33.0||32.0|
|Less than 35 hours per week||2,978||22.9||18.2||18.1||19.7|
|Looking for work||652||28.1||24.9||20.2||28.7|
|Not in the labor force||2,380||17.1||19.2||14.8||15.0|
|Mother’s work shift6, 7|
|Concern regarding neighborhood|
health and safety conditions
|No concern regarding neighborhood|
health and safety conditions
|$25,000 or less||3,008||31.4||27.4||25.4||27.1|
|$25,001 to $50,000||2,767||29.3||24.6||26.2||25.0|
|$50,001 to $75,000||2,635||28.1||23.0||27.8||23.3|
|$75,001 to $100,000||1,775||29.4||21.0||31.0||24.9|
|$100,001 or more||2,159||27.9||21.0||23.6||23.1|
|At or above poverty threshold||10,017||29.1||23.8||27.1||24.3|
|Below poverty threshold||2,328||30.4||25.9||24.1||26.9|
1Estimates indicate hours per week, per child, across all weekly arrangements of all types. For children with more than one arrangement, the hours for each weekly arrangement are summed to calculate the total amount of time in child care per week.
2Estimates indicate hours per week for care of a given type, per child. For children with more than one arrangement of a given type, the hours for each arrangement of that type are summed to calculate the total amount of time in care per week.
3Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.
4“Other race, non-Hispanic” includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander.
5Complete descriptions of the categories for parents’ language are as follows: (1) “Both/only parent(s) learned English as child(ren) or currently speak(s) English in the home,” (2) “One of two parents learned English as a child or currently speaks English in the home,” and (3) “No parent learned English as a child and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home.”
6Children without mothers living in the household are not included in estimates related to mother’s education, enrollment, employment status, or work shift.
7Work shifts were collapsed into two categories: regular and variable work shifts. A regular work shift is one with set hours. A variable shift is one that changes from days to evenings or nights regardless of whether the hours are set by the employer or the employee.
8Parents or guardians respond “yes” or “no” to the question: “Are there any conditions in your neighborhood that make you worried about the health or safety of ((CHILD)/any of the children) in your household?”
9Children are considered poor if they were living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the household’s needs, given its size and composition.
NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through 5 years of age, and not yet in kindergarten with at least one weekly nonparental care arrangement. Children may have multiple arrangements. The sum of hours in nonparental care arrangements is taken for each child. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005).