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Initial Results From the 2005 NHES Early Childhood Program Participation Survey

NCES 2006-075
May 2006

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Table 1. Percentage distribution of children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten participating in various weekly nonparental care arrangements, by child and family characteristics: 2005
 
Characteristic Number of children
(thousands)
No weekly nonparental care arrangement At least one weekly nonparental care arrangement Distribution of weekly nonparental care arrangement, by type1
Relative Nonrelative Center-based2
  Total 20,6654060352260
 
Childís age
Less than 1 year3,5195842483328
1-2 years 8,0804753393043
3-5 years 9,0662773291578
 
Childís sex
Male 10,5984060332262
Female 10,0674159372358
 
Childís race/ethnicity
White, non-Hispanic 11,4883862322661
Black, non-Hispanic 2,9623169381563
Hispanic 4,2835149412051
Asian or Pacific Islander,
   non-Hispanic
6554753301470
Other race, non-Hispanic3 1,2784060431563
 
Family type
Two parents 16,2944456312461
One parent 4,0362773461857
Nonparent guardian(s) 3353664421665
 
Parentsí language spoken most
  at home
4
Both/only parent(s) speak(s) English 17,6203763352360
One of two parents speaks English 5656337291166
No parent speaks English 2,4805842322156
 
Motherís level of education5
Less than a high school 2,0676535431553
High school/GED 5,6894555421856
Vocational/technical or some college 5,6633862382256
Bachelorís degree 4,3213466262369
Graduate or professional education
  or degree
2,5702674263362
 
Motherís school enrollment status5
Enrolled 2,5022476381863
Not enrolled 17,8084357342359
 
Motherís employment status5
35 or more hours per week 7,1681585362756
Less than 35 hours per week 4,3293169422555
Looking for work 1,4595545421650
Not in the labor force 7,3536832201079
 
Motherís work shift5, 6
Regular shift 9,7871882372756
Variable shift 1,7113763472451
 
Neighborhood conditions7
Concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
3,3654060402154
No concern regarding neighborhood
  health and safety conditions
17,3004060342361
 
Household income
$25,000 or less 5,9124951431657
$25,001 to $50,000 5,2564753421955
$50,001 to $75,000 4,3073961312758
$75,001 to $100,000 2,4452773262663
$100,001 or more 2,7462179262770
 
Poverty status8
At or above poverty threshold 15,9003763332461
Below poverty threshold 4,7665149441657
1Children may have more than one nonparental care arrangement of the same type or more than one nonparental care arrangement of different types.

2Center-based arrangements include day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs.

3"Other race, non-Hispanic" includes children who were multiracial and not of Hispanic ethnicity, or who were American Indian or Alaska Native, or were not Hispanic, White, Black, Asian, or Pacific Islander.

4Complete descriptions of the categories for parentsí language are as follows: (1) "Both/only parent(s) learned English as child(ren) or currently speak(s) English in the home," (2) "One of two parents learned English as a child or currently speaks English in the home," and (3) "No parent learned English as a child and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home."

5Children without mothers living in the household are not included in estimates related to motherís education, enrollment, employment status, or work shift.

6Work shifts were collapsed into two categories: regular and variable work shifts. A regular work shift is one with set hours. A variable shift is one that changes from days to evenings or nights regardless of whether the hours are set by the employer or the employee.

7Parents or guardians respond "yes" or "no" to the question: "Are there any conditions in your neighborhood that make you worried about the health or safety of ((CHILD)/any of the children) in your household?"

8Children are considered poor if they were living in households with incomes below the poverty threshold, which is a dollar amount determined by the federal government to meet the householdís needs, given its size and composition.

NOTE: Estimates include children from birth through age 5 and not yet in kindergarten. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.

SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005).

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