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Initial Results From the 2005 NHES Early Childhood Program Participation Survey

NCES 2006-075
May 2006

Appendix B: Glossary

The statistics, measures, and characteristics used in analyses for this E.D. TAB report are described below. The measures and characteristics include both core early childhood program participation categories and socio-demographic characteristics that are used throughout the report. The original variables used in analyses for this report are described below. First, demographic variables used in the tables are described.

When the variable is in the Early Childhood Program Participation of the 2005 National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005) data file, the variable name appears in parentheses after the bold entry name.

Statistics
Household Characteristics
Child Characteristics
Child Care Arrangements
Time Spent in Nonparental Care Arrangement
Out-Of-Pocket Expenses for Nonparental Care
Assistance for Nonparental Care Arrangement
Child-Care Provider Ratio
Source of Information for Nonparental Care
Sick Child Care
Health Care Service
Location of Care
Factors for Selecting Care
Parental Participation in Home Activities

STATISTICS

Mean - The mean is one of several indices of central tendency that statisticians use to indicate the point on the scale of measures where the population is centered. The mean is the average of the scores or values in the population. Numerically, it equals the sum of the scores divided by the number of scores.

Percentage - A percentage is a part of a whole expressed in hundredths.

Standard Error - The standard error, or standard error of the mean, is an estimate of the standard deviation of the sampling distribution of means, based on the data from one or more random samples. Numerically, it is equal to the square root of the quantity obtained when the estimated variance of a sample estimate is divided by the size of the sample.

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HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS

FAMILY TYPE (FAMILY05) consists of a set of family type categories using both parent and sibling information. It is created using HHPARN05 and NUMSIBS, which are other derived variables. Nonparent guardians are included in the "other" category. Nonparent guardians are persons other than mothers and fathers (birth, adoptive, step, or foster, and same-sex parents or partners of parents), such as grandparents, aunts, or uncles. Households comprising same-sex parents or partners of parents are included in the two-parent household categories in this derived variable.

The values for FAMILY05 are as follows:
1 = Two parents and sibling(s)
2 = Two parents, no sibling
3 = One parent and sibling(s)
4 = One parent, no sibling
5 = Other

HOUSEHOLD INCOME (HINCOME) is the broad range of the household income. Households were asked to report the total income of all persons in the household over the past year using income ranges rather than exact dollars (e.g., $10,001 to 15,000, $15,001 to $20,000, etc., up to over $100,000). The data for the variable HINCOME were taken directly from the ECPP responses (questionnaire item PW19) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

The values of HINCOME were collapsed for presentation as follows:
1 = $25,000 or less
2 = $25,001 to $50,000
3 = $50,001 to $75,000
4 = $75,001 to $100,000
5 = $100,001 or more

HOUSEHOLD POVERTY STATUS (POVERTY): NHES provides an approximate measure of poverty. The income variable used to construct POVERTY was HINCOME (PW19), which listed possible income ranges (e.g., $10,001 to 15,000, $15,001 to $20,000, etc., up to over $100,000). If data for HINCOME were missing, they were imputed. Using the income ranges and household size, poverty thresholds were used to establish poverty status. Thresholds to define poverty were based on weighted averages from 2004 census poverty thresholds. A household was considered in poverty if a household of a particular size matched the income categories shown in table A-1.

Table A-1 Poverty definition for Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) analysis: 2005

HOUSEHOLD TOTAL (HHTOTAL) is the counter-derived variable that indicates the total number of household members.

MOTHER'S EMPLOYMENT STATUS (MOMEMPLD) indicates the employment status of the mother (birth/adoptive/step/foster/female guardian). This variable is derived from MOMWORK (PU8), MOMLEAVE (PU9), MOMHOURS (PU10), MOMLOOK (PU14), MOMAGN (PU15a), MOMEMPL (PU15b), MOMREL (PU15c), and MOMANSAD (PU15d).

The values for MOMEMPLD are as follows:
-1 = No mother or female guardian for the subject child in the household
1 = Working 35 hours or more per week
2 = Working less than 35 hours per week
3 = Looking for work
4 = Not in the labor force

MOTHER'S LEVEL OF EDUCATION (MOMEDUC) is a measure of the educational attainment of the child's mother or female guardian. This measure is derived from MOMGRADE (PU6) and MOMDIPL (PU7).

The values for MOMEDUC are as follows:
-1 = No mother or female guardian for the subject child in the household
1 = Less than high school diploma
2 = High school graduate or equivalent
3 = Vocational/technical education after high school or some college
4 = College graduate
5 = Graduate or professional school

MOTHER'S WORK SHIFT is a measure of whether the mother's (birth/adoptive/step/foster/female guardian) work shift is one with set hours. Responses indicating the mother "worked a regular day shift" (MOMRSFT =1) and "worked a regular shift at times other than between 6 am and 6 pm" (MOMVSFT =1) were coded as regular shift. Responses indicating that the mother worked a "variable shift that changes from days to evening," "variable shift with hours set by employer", or "when work is available" (MOMVSFT = 2, 3, or 4) were coded as variable shift. The data for the variables MOMRSFT (PU11) and MOMVSFT (PU12) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

MOTHER'S SCHOOL ENROLLMENT STATUS (MOMENROL) indicates the enrollment status of the mother (birth/adoptive/step/foster/female guardian) in a school, college, university, or adult learning center, or receiving vocational education or job training. The data for the variable MOMENROL (PU17) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

NEIGHBORHOOD CONDITIONS (HNEIGHB) indicates parental concerns about the health and safety of children due to neighborhood conditions. The data for the variable HNEIGHB (PW13) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

PARENT'S LANGUAGE (LANGUAGE) describes the language(s) spoken most often at home by the parent(s)/guardian(s) in the household. This measure is derived from MOMLANG (PU3), MOMSPEAK (PU4), DADLANG (PV3), and DADSPEAK (PV4). If these data were missing for a household member, they were imputed.

The values for LANGUAGE are as follows:
1 = Both/only parent(s) learned English first or currently speak(s) English in the home
2 = One of two parents learned English first or currently speaks English in the home
3 = No parent learned English first and both/only parent(s) currently speak(s) a non-English language in the home

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CHILD CHARACTERISTICS

CHILD'S AGE (AGE2004) is the sampled child's age as of December 31, 2004.

CHILD'S RACE/ETHNICITY (RACEETH2) indicates the race and ethnicity of the sampled child. Items included in this derived variable are CHISPAN (PTB2), CWHITE, CBLACK, CAMIND, CASIAN, CPACI, and CRACEOTH (PTB3).

The values of RACEETH2 are as follows:
1 = White, non-Hispanic
2 = Black, non-Hispanic
3 = Hispanic
4 = Asian or Pacific Islander, non-Hispanic
5 = All other races and multiple races, non-Hispanic

CHILD'S SEX (SEX): The data for the variable SEX (PA3) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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CHILD CARE ARRANGEMENTS

ANYCARE2 indicates whether the child currently participates in any nonparental care or program arrangements at least once each week. ANYCARE2 was created using the variables RCWEEK1-RCWEEK4 (ED5), indicating whether a relative care arrangement occurred at least weekly; NCWEEK1-NCWEEK4 (EE5), indicating whether a nonrelative care arrangement occurred at least weekly; and CPWEEK1-CPWEEK4 (EG6) indicating whether a center-based arrangement, including day care centers, Head Start programs, preschools, prekindergartens, and other early childhood programs occurred at least weekly.

The values for ANYCARE2 are as follows:
1 = Currently participates in any care or program arrangement that occurs at least once each week
2 = Does not currently participate in any care or program arrangement that occurs at least once each week

EARLY HEAD START OR HEAD START STATUS: Early Head Start and Head Start are federally sponsored preschool programs primarily for children from low income families. Parents are asked to indicate whether the child is in an Early Head Start or a Head Start center-based program (PCANYHD). The data for the variable PCANYHD (EH1) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available.

RELATIVE CARE TYPE (RCTYPE1-4) indicates the type of relative care arrangement. Responses indicated whether the relative was a "grandmother," "grandfather," "aunt", "uncle," "brother,", "sister," or "another relative" (RCTYPE1-4 = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or 7). The data for this variable were taken directly from the ECPP responses (ED3) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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TIME SPENT IN NONPARENTAL CARE ARRANGEMENT

NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK IN CENTER-BASED CARE (CPHRS1-4): Parents were asked how many hours per week their child spent in each center-based arrangement. The data for CPHRS1-4 (EG9) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK IN NONRELATIVE CARE (NCHRS1-4): Parents were asked how many hours per week their child spent in each nonrelative care arrangement. The data for NCHRS1-4 (EE8) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

NUMBER OF HOURS PER WEEK IN RELATIVE CARE (RCHRS1-4): Parents were asked how many hours per week their child spent in each relative care arrangement. The data for RCHRS1-4 (ED8) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

NUMBER OF MONTHS IN CENTER-BASED CARE (CPSTRTM1-4 and CPSTRTY1-4): Parents were asked how old (in years and months) their child was when he or she started going to each center-based arrangement. The data for CPSTRTM1-4 (EG14) and CPSTRTY1-4 (EG14) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

NUMBER OF MONTHS IN NONRELATIVE CARE (NCSTRTM1-4 and NCSTRTY1-4): Parents were asked how old (in years and months) their child was when he or she started going to each nonrelative care arrangement. The data for NCSTRTM1-4 (EE13) and NCSTRTY1-4 (EE13) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

NUMBER OF MONTHS IN RELATIVE CARE (RCSTRTM1-4 and RCSTRTY1-4): Parents were asked how old (in years and months) their child was when he or she started going to each relative care arrangement. The data for RCSTRTM1-4 (ED13) and RCSTRTY1-4 (ED13) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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OUT-OF-POCKET EXPENSES FOR NONPARENTAL CARE

FEE FOR CENTER-BASED CARE: Parents indicated whether there was a charge or fee for their center-based care arrangement (CPFEE1-4). If parents reported a charge, they were asked their out-of-pocket cost (CPCOST1-4) and unit of cost for each center-based care arrangement (CPUNIT1-4). Examples of unit of cost are per hour, per day, per week, per month, per year, and every 2 weeks. All costs were converted to an hourly unit for presentation in tables 7 and 7A and weekly for tables 8 and 8A. The data for CPFEE1-4 (EG22), CPCOST1-4 (EG24), and CPUNIT1-4 (EG24) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

FEE FOR NONRELATIVE CARE: Parents indicated whether there was a charge or fee for their nonrelative care arrangement (NCFEE1-4). If parents reported a charge, they were asked their out-of-pocket cost (NCCOST1-4) and unit of cost for each nonrelative care arrangement (NCUNIT1-4). Examples of unit of cost are per hour, per day, per week, per month, per year, and every 2 weeks. All costs were converted to an hourly unit for presentation in tables 7 and 7A and weekly for tables 8 and 8A. The data for NCFEE1-4 (EE23), NCCOST1-4 (EE25) and NCUNIT1-4 (EE25) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

FEE FOR RELATIVE CARE: Parents indicated whether there was a charge or fee for their relative care arrangement (RCFEE1-4). If parents reported a charge, they were asked their out-of-pocket cost (RCCOST104) and unit of cost for each relative care arrangement (RCUNIT1-4). Examples of unit of cost are per hour, per day, per week, per month, per year, and every 2 weeks. All costs were converted to an hourly unit for presentation in tables 7 and 7A and weekly for tables 8 and 8A. The data for RCFEE1-4 (ED19), RCCOST1-4 (ED21) and RCUNIT1-4 (ED21) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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ASSISTANCE FOR NONPARENTAL CARE ARRANGEMENT

ASSISTANCE FOR CENTER-BASED CARE: Parents were asked whether they received assistance for each of their center-based care arrangements from various sources. The sources were: (a) a relative outside of the household (CPREL1-4), (b) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, a federally funded program that provides assistance and work opportunities to needy families (CPTANF1-4), (c) another social service, welfare, or child care agency (CPSSAC1-4), (d) an employer (CPEMPL1-4), and (e) someone else (CPOTHER1-4). The data for CPREL1-4, CPTANF1-4, CPSSAC1-4, CPEMPL1-4, and CPOTHER1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EG23) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

ASSISTANCE FOR NONRELATIVE CARE: Parents were asked whether they received assistance for each of their nonrelative care arrangements from various sources. The sources were: (a) a relative outside of the household (NCREL1-4), (b) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, a federally funded program that provides assistance and work opportunities to needy families (NCTANF1-4), (c) another social service, welfare, or child care agency (NCSSAC1-4), (d) an employer (NCEMPL1-4), and (e) someone else (NCOTHER1-4). The data for NCREL1-4, NCTANF1-4, NCSSAC1-4, NCEMPL1-4, and NCOTHER1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EE24) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

ASSISTANCE FOR RELATIVE CARE: Parents were asked whether they received assistance for each of their relative care arrangements from various sources. The sources were ( a) a relative outside of the household (RCREL1-4), (b) Temporary Assistance for Needy Families, a federally funded program that provides assistance and work opportunities to needy families (RCTANF1-4), (c) another social service, welfare, or child care agency (RCSSAC1-4), (d) an employer (RCEMPL1-4), and (e) someone else (RCOTHER1-4). The data for RCREL1-4, RCTANF1-4, RCSSAC1-4, RCEMPL1-4, and RCOTHER1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (ED20) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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CHILD-CARE PROVIDER RATIO

CHILD-CARE PROVIDER RATIO IN CENTER-BASED PROGRAMS: The variables used to construct child-care provider ratio were CPKIDS1-4 and CPADLTS1-4. Parents were asked how many children were usually cared for together (CPKIDS1-4) and the total number of adults in the child's room at the same time (CPADLTS1-4) for each center-based care arrangement. The data for CPKIDS1-4 (EG15) and CPADLTS1-4 (EG16) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed. Child-care provider ratio for each child's center-based arrangement was calculated by dividing the total number of children cared for together by the total number of adults in the child's room or group.

CHILD-CARE PROVIDER RATIO IN NONRELATIVE CARE: The variables used to construct child-care provider ratio were NCKIDS1-4 and NCADLTS1-4. Parents were asked how many children were usually cared for together NCPKIDS1-4) and the total number of adults that usually cared for the child at the same time (NCADLTS1-4) for each nonrelative care arrangement. The data for NCKIDS1-4 (EE14) and NCADLTS1-4 (EE15) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed. Child-care provider ratio for each child's nonrelative care arrangement was calculated by dividing the total number of children cared for together by the total number of adults who usually cared for the child at the same time.

CHILD-CARE PROVIDER RATIO IN RELATIVE CARE: The variables used to construct child-care provider ratio were RCKIDS1-4 and RCADLTS1-4. Parents were asked how many children were usually cared for together (RCKIDS1-4) and the total number of adults that usually cared for the child at the same time (RCADLTS1-4) for each relative care arrangement. The data for RCKIDS1-4 (ED14) and RCADLTS1-4 (ED15) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed. Child-care provider ratio for each child's relative care arrangement was calculated by dividing the total number of children cared for together by the total number of adults who usually cared for the child at the same time.

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SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR NONPARENTAL CARE

SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR CHILDREN'S CENTER-BASED CARE: For table 11, parents were asked how they learned about each of their children's center-based program. The data for the source of child care information were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EG17). The values for this variable are (a) Friends/neighbors/relative/coworkers (CPFRIEN1-4); (b) Place of employment (CPPLEMP1-4); (c) Public or private school (CPSCHOO1-4); (d) Church, synagogue, or other place of worship (CPCHURC1-4); (e) Newspapers/advertisements/yellow pages (CPADS1-4); (f) R already knew provider (CPKNEW1-4); (g) Provider cared for another child of R's (CPCHILD1-4); (h) Public bulletin board/flyers/drove/walked by (CPBULLE1-4); and (i) all other sources, including Resource and Referral (R&R) agency (CPAGECPY1-4), Child care provider agency (CPCARE1-4), Reference materials (CPREFER1-4), Internet (CPINTR1-4), welfare or social service caseworkers (CPSOURC1-4), and other sources (CPSOURC1-4).

SOURCE OF INFORMATION FOR CHILDREN'S NONRELATIVE CARE: For table 11, parents were asked how they learned about each of their children's nonrelative care arrangement. The data for the source of child care information were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EE17). (a) Friends/neighbors/relative/coworkers (NCFRIEN1-4); (b) Place of employment (NCPLEMP1-4); (c) Public or private school (NCSCHOO1-4); (d) Church, synagogue, or other place of worship (NCCHURC1-4); (e) Newspapers/advertisements/yellow pages (NCADS1-4); (f) R already knew provider (NCKNEW1-4); (g) Provider cared for another child of R's (NCCHILD1-4); (h) Public bulletin board/flyers/drove/walked by (NCBULLE1-4); and (i) all other sources, including Resource and Referral (R&R) agency (NCAGECPY1-4), child care provider agency (NCCARE1-4), Reference materials (NCREFER1-4), Internet (NCINTR1-4), welfare or social service caseworkers (NCSOURC1-4), and Other sources (NCSOURC1-4).

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SICK CHILD CARE

SICK CHILD CARE AT CENTER-BASED CARE: Parents were asked to indicate whether each center-based program provided sick child care when the child was sick without a fever (CPSKNFV1-4) or sick child care when the child was sick with a fever (CPSKFV1-4). The data for CPSKNFV1-4 and CPSKFV1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EG20) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

SICK CHILD CARE AT NONRELATIVE CARE: Parents were asked to indicate whether each nonrelative care arrangement provided sick child care when the child was sick without a fever (NCSKNFV1-4) or sick child care when the child was sick with a fever (NCSKFV1-4). The data for NCSKNFV1-4 and NCSKFV1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EE21) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

SICK CHILD CARE AT RELATIVE CARE (RCSKFV1-4): Parents were asked to indicate whether each relative care arrangement provided sick child care when the child was sick without a fever (RCSKNFV1-4) or sick child care when the child was sick with a fever (RCSKFV1-4). The data for RCSKNFV1-4 and RCSKFV1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (ED17) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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HEALTH CARE SERVICE

HEALTH CARE SERVICES RECEIVED FROM CENTER-BASED CARE: For Table 13, parents were asked to indicate whether each of their children's center-based program provided the following services: (a) Hearing, speech, or vision testing (CPTEST1-4; (b) Physical examinations (CPPHYSE1-4); and (c) Formal testing for developmental or learning problems (CPDISAB1-4). The data for CPTEST1-4, CPPHYSE1-4, and CPDISAB1-4 were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EG20) when available. Otherwise they were imputed.

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LOCATION OF CARE

LOCATION FOR CENTER-BASED PROGRAM (CPPLACE1-4): For table 14, the data for location of center-based care were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EG3). The values for this variable are: (1) own home; (2) another home; (3) a church, synagogue or other place of worship; (4) a public preschool or school (K-12); (5) a private preschool or school (K-12); (6) a college or university; (7) a community center; (8) a public library; (9) its own building; (10) a place of employment or business; and (11) other.

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FACTORS FOR SELECTING CARE

ARRGMOST is the arrangement displayed at EI1. If a child has no arrangements or only one arrangement, ARRGMOST is set to -1. For most cases in which the child has more than one arrangement, the arrangement displayed is the one in which the child spends the most time per week, on average.

FACTORS FOR SELECTING CARE: For each arrangement in which the child spent the most time, parents were asked to rate particular factors were when they chose the arrangement. Only responses indicating that certain factors were "very important" were included. The factors for selecting child care were (a) location (DLOCA = 4); (b) cost (DCOST =4); (c) reliability of arrangement (DRELY = 4); (d) learning activities at the arrangement (DLERN = 4); (e) child spending time with other children his/her age (DCHIL = 4); (f) times during the day when the caregiver is available to provide care (DHROP = 4); and (g) number of other children in the care group (DNBGRP = 4). The data for DLOCA, DCOST, DRELY, DLERN, DCHIL, DHROP, and DNBGRP were taken directly from the ECPP responses (EI1) when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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PARENTAL PARTICIPATION IN HOME ACTIVITIES

HOME ACTIVITIES: Parents were asked how many times they or someone in the family read to the child in the past week (FOREADTO), "not at all," "once or twice," "3 or more times," and every day." Parents were also asked whether they told a story (FOSTORY), taught letters, words, or numbers (FOWORDS), taught songs or music (FOMUSIC), and worked on arts and crafts (FOCRAFTS) with the child in the past week. The data for FOREADTO (EK1), FOSTORY (EK3), FOWORDS (EK3), FOMUSIC (EK3), and FOCRAFTS (EK3) were taken directly from the ECPP responses when available. Otherwise, they were imputed.

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