
SUMMARY 
Looking across the results in mathematics and science, the following points can be made.
 In 2003, fourthgraders in three countriesChinese Taipei, Japan, and Singaporeoutperformed U.S. fourthgraders in both mathematics and science, while students in 13 countries turned in lower average mathematics and science scores than U.S. students (tables 2 and 8). U.S. fourthgrade students outperformed their peers in five OECDmember countries (Australia, Italy, New Zealand, Norway and Scotland) of which three are Englishspeaking countries (Australia, New Zealand and Scotland).
 No measurable changes were detected in the average mathematics and science scores of U.S. fourthgraders between 1995 and 2003 (tables 4 and 10). Moreover, the available data suggest that the performance of U.S. fourthgraders in both mathematics and science was lower in 2003 than in 1995 relative to the 14 other countries that also participated in both studies (tables 6 and 12).
 On the other hand, fourthgrade students in six countries showed improvement in both average mathematics and science scores between 1995 and 2003: Cyprus, England, Hong Kong SAR, LatviaLSS, New Zealand and Slovenia. At the same time, fourthgraders in Norway showed measurable declines in average mathematics and science achievement over the same time period (tables 4 and 10).
 U.S. fourthgrade girls showed no measurable change in their average performance in mathematics and science between 1995 and 2003 (figures 1 and 3). U.S. fourthgrade boys also showed no measurable change in their average mathematics performance, but a measurable decline in science performance over the same time period.
 U.S. Black fourthgraders improved in both mathematics and science between
1995 and 2003 (figures 1 and 3).
Hispanic fourthgraders showed no measurable changes in either subject, while
White fourthgraders showed no measurable change in mathematics, but declined
in science.
 As a result of changes in the performance of Black and White fourthgraders,
the gap in achievement between White and Black fourthgrade students in the
United States narrowed between 1995 and 2003 in both mathematics and science
(figures 1 and 3).
In addition, the gap in achievement between Black and Hispanic fourthgraders
also narrowed in science over the same time period.
 In 2003, U.S. fourthgraders in U.S. public schools with the highest
poverty levels (75 percent or more of students eligible for free or reducedprice
lunch) had lower average mathematics and science scores compared to their
counterparts in public schools with lower poverty levels (figures 1 and 3).
 Eighthgraders in the five Asian countries that outperformed U.S. eighthgraders in mathematics in 2003Chinese Taipei, Hong Kong SAR, Japan, Korea, and Singaporealso outperformed U.S. eighthgraders in science in 2003, with eighthgraders in Estonia and Hungary performing better than U.S. students in mathematics and science as well (tables 3 and 9). Students in three of these Asian countriesChinese Taipei, Japan, and Singaporeoutperformed both U.S. fourth and eighthgraders in mathematics and science on average (tables 2, 8, 3, and 9).
 U.S. eighthgraders improved their average mathematics and science performances in 2003 compared to 1995 (tables 5 and 11). The growth in achievement occurred primarily between 1995 and 1999 in mathematics, and between 1999 and 2003 in science. Moreover, the available data suggest that the performance of U.S. eighthgraders in both mathematics and science was higher in 2003 than it was in 1995 relative to the 21 other countries that participated in the studies (tables 7 and 13).
 In addition to students in the United States, eighthgraders in seven other countries showed significant increases in both mathematics and science in 2003 compared to either 1999 or 1995: Hong Kong SAR, Israel, Korea, LatviaLSS, Lithuania, Morocco, and the Philippines (tables 5 and 11). On the other hand, eighthgraders in eight countries declined in their mathematics and science performance over this same time period.
 U.S. eighthgrade boys and girls, and U.S. eighthgrade Blacks and Hispanics improved their mathematics and science performances from 1995 (figures 2 and 4). As a result, the gap in achievement between White and Black eighthgraders narrowed in both mathematics and science over this time period.
 In 2003, U.S. eighthgraders in U.S. public schools with the highest poverty levels (75 percent or more of students eligible for free or reducedprice lunch) had lower average mathematics and science scores compared to their counterparts in public schools with lower poverty levels (figures 2 and 4).
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