Fourth Grade:
 Although the average mathematics score of U.S. fourthgraders was 518 in both 1995 and 2003 (table 4), the data suggest that the standing of U.S. fourthgraders relative to their peers in 14 other countries was lower in 2003 than in 1995 in mathematics (table 6 and table C3 in appendix C). In 1995, on average, U.S. fourthgraders were outperformed in mathematics by fourthgraders in four of these countries and outperformed fourthgraders in nine of these countries. In 2003 on average, U.S. fourthgraders were outperformed by fourthgraders in seven of these countries and outperformed fourthgraders in seven of these countries, on average.
Eighth Grade:
 The average mathematics score for U.S. eighthgraders increased from 492 in 1995 to 504 in 2003. Over the same period, several countries whose eighthgraders outperformed the U.S. eighthgraders in 1995 experienced decreases in their average scores. The net effect resulted in a higher relative standing for U.S. eighthgraders in 2003 (table 7 and table C5 in appendix C). Among this group of countries, U.S. eighthgraders were outperformed by eighthgraders in 12 countries, on average, and outperformed eighthgraders in 4 countries in mathematics in 1995. In 2003, U.S. eighthgraders were outperformed by eighthgraders in seven of these countries, on average, and outperformed eighthgraders in six of these countries in mathematics.
