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Financial Accounting for Local and State School Systems, 2003 Edition



Account Classification Description
Quick Code Finder by Number/Category
Code Descriptions in Alphabetical Order

Table of Contents
Introduction
Uses of Information
Budgeting
Governmental  Accounting
Financial Accounting
Cost Accounting and Reporting for Educational Programs
Activity Fund Guidelines
Summary of Account Code Changes and other Appendices
PDF File (1044 KB)

Contact:
Frank Johnson
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Chapter 6, Account Classification Descriptions

Program

 Code  Description
100 Regular Elementary/Secondary Education Programs. Activities that provide students in prekindergarten through grade 12 with learning experiences to prepare them for further education or training and for responsibilities as citizens, family members, and workers. Regular programs should be distinguished from special education programs that focus on adapting curriculum or instruction to accommodate a specific disability; from vocational/technical programs that focus on career skills; and from alternative education programs that focus on the educational needs of students at risk of failing or dropping out of school because of academic, behavioral, or situational factors.
 
200 Special Programs. Special Programs include activities for elementary and secondary students (prekindergarten* through grade 12) receiving services outside the realm of "regular programs." These services are related to mental retardation, orthopedic impairment, emotional disturbance, developmental delay, specific learning disabilities, multiple disabilities, hearing impairment, other health impairments, visual impairments including blindness, autism, deaf-blindness, traumatic brain injury, and speech or language impairments. Special Programs is also inclusive of students receiving services related to gifted and talented programs.

Mental retardation means significantly subaverage general intellectual functioning, existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Orthopedic impairment means a severe orthopedic impairment that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by a congenital anomaly (e.g., clubfoot, absence of some member), impairments caused by disease (e.g., poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis), and impairments from other causes (e.g., cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).

Emotional disturbance is defined as follows:

    1. A condition exhibiting one or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child's educational performance:
      1. An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual, sensory, or health factors.
      2. An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers.
      3. Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances.
      4. A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression.
      5. A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems.
    2. The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.

Developmental delay programs are for children aged 3 through 9 who are experiencing developmental delays, as defined by the state and as measured by appropriate diagnostic instruments and procedures, in one or more of the following areas: physical development, cognitive development, communication development, social or emotional development, or adaptive development.

Specific learning disability is defined as follows:

  1. The term means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia.
  2. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; of mental retardation; of emotional disturbance; or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.

Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments (e.g., mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairment), the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that the student cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairments. The term does not include deaf-blindness.

Hearing impairment means impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating, that adversely affects a child's educational performance but that is not included under the definition of deafness in this chapter.

Other health impairment means having limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli, that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickle cell anemia; and adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Visual impairment, including blindness, means impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term includes both partial sight and blindness.

Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child's educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance, as previously defined in this chapter.

Deaf-blindness means concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that the child cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or children with blindness.

Traumatic brain injury means an acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability or psychosocial impairment, or both, that adversely affects a child's educational performance. The term applies to open or closed head injuries resulting in impairments in one or more areas, such as cognition; language; memory; attention; reasoning; abstract thinking; judgment; problem-solving; sensory, perceptual, and motor abilities; psychosocial behavior; physical functions; information processing; and speech. The term does not apply to brain injuries that are congenital or degenerative or to brain injuries induced by birth trauma.

Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, language impairment, or voice impairment, that adversely affects a child's educational performance.

Gifted and talented behavior consists of behaviors that reflect an interaction among three basic clusters of human traits: above average general and/or specific abilities, high levels of task commitment, and high levels of creativity. Individuals capable of developing gifted behavior are those possessing or capable of developing this composite set of traits and applying them to any potentially valuable area of human performance. Persons who manifest or are capable of developing an interaction among the three clusters require a wide variety of educational opportunities and services that are not ordinarily provided through regular instructional programs (Renzulli and Reis 1997).

 
300 Vocational and Technical Programs. Activities delivered through traditional comprehensive and vocational-technical high schools or recognized charter schools that prepare students to meet challenging academic standards as well as industry skill standards while preparing students for broad-based careers and further education beyond high school in the following 16 career cluster areas:
  • Agriculture and Natural Resources. Activities that prepare students for a wide range of agriculturally related careers from veterinarian to underground mine mechanic.
  • Architecture and Construction. Activities that prepare students for careers in the construction industry such as plumber, painter, construction manager, and architect.
  • Arts, A/V Technology and Communication. Activities that prepare students for careers in arts and communication, including writing, editing, radio and television broadcasting, acting, and music.
  • Business and Administration. Activities that prepare students for careers in business-related areas, such as administrative support, accounting, management, and supervision.
  • Education and Training. Activities that prepare students for careers in education, such as teacher, librarian, coach, and counselor.
  • Finance. Activities that prepare students for careers in the financial services industry, including insurance services, financial analysis, and banking.
  • Government and Public Administration. Activities that prepare students for public service careers, such as legislator, urban planner, city manager, and parks/recreation director.
  • Health Science. Activities that prepare students for careers in the health services industry, including nursing, medicine, physical therapy, pharmacy, and medical support.
  • Hospitality and Tourism. Activities that prepare students for careers in the hospitality and tourism industry, such as travel agent, food preparation worker, hotel manager, and bartender.
  • Human Services. Activities that prepare students for careers in community services, such as social worker, religious worker, recreation worker, and clergy.
  • Information Technology. Activities that prepare students for careers in the information technology services area, including working with databases, designing software, and programming and repairing computers.
  • Law and Public Safety. Activities that prepare students for careers in legal and protective services, such as correction officer, police officer, lawyer, and judge.
  • Manufacturing. Activities that prepare students for careers in traditional industries such as steel and textiles or cutting-edge industries such as aerospace and electronics.
  • Retail/Wholesale Sales and Service. Activities that prepare students for careers in the sales and service industry, such as marketing/public relations manager, real estate agent, hairdresser, retail salesperson, and telemarketer.
  • Scientific Research and Engineering. Activities that prepare students for careers in science and engineering, including chemical, civil, and mechanical engineering; biological and chemical sciences; surveying; and astronomy.
  • Transportation, Distribution, and Logistics. Activities that prepare students for careers in the transportation industry, such as aircraft mechanic, railroad conductor, school bus driver, truck driver, and ship pilot.
 
400 Other Instructional Programs-Elementary/Secondary. Activities that provide students in prekindergarten* through K-12 with learning experiences not included in the Program codes 100-300 or 500-900. Examples of such programs follow:
  • Bilingual-English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL). Activities for students from homes where the English language is not the primary language spoken.
  • Alternative (and At Risk) Education Programs. Activities for students assigned to alternative campuses, centers, or classrooms designed to provide improved behavior modification and/or an enhanced learning experience. Typically, alternative education programs are designed to meet the needs of students that cannot be addressed in a traditional classroom setting.
 
500 Non-Public School Programs. Activities for students attending a school established by an agency other than the state, a subdivision of the state, or the federal government, which usually is supported primarily by other than public funds. The services consist of such activities as those involved in providing instructional services, attendance and social work services, health services, and transportation services for non-public school students.
 
600 Adult/Continuing Education Programs. Activities that develop knowledge and skills to meet immediate and long-range educational objectives of adults who, having completed or interrupted formal schooling, have accepted adult roles and responsibilities. Programs include activities to foster the development of fundamental tools of learning; prepare students for a postsecondary career; prepare students for postsecondary education programs; upgrade occupational competence; prepare students for a new or different career; develop skills and appreciation for special interests; or enrich the aesthetic qualities of life. Adult basic education programs are included in this category.
 
700 Community/Junior College Education Programs. Activities for students attending an institution of higher education that usually offers the first two years of college instruction. If the school district is responsible for providing this program, all costs of the program should be coded here.
 
800

Community Services Programs. Activities that are not directly related to the provision of educational services in a school district. These include such services as community recreation programs, civic activities, public libraries, programs of custody and care of children, and community welfare activities provided by the district for the community as a whole or for some segment of the community.

Community Recreation. Activities concerned with providing recreation for the community as a whole or for some segment of the community. Included are such staff activities as organizing and supervising playgrounds, swimming pools, and similar programs.

Civic Services. Activities concerned with providing services to civic affairs or organizations. This program area includes services to parent-teacher association meetings, public forums, lectures, and civil defense planning.

Public Library Services. Activities pertaining to the operation of public libraries by a school district or the provision of library services to the general public through the school library. Included are such activities as budgeting, planning, and augmenting the library's collection in relation to the community and informing the community of public library resources and services.

Custody and Child Care Services. Activities pertaining to the provision of programs for the custodial care of children in residential day schools or child-care centers that are not part of, or directly related to, the instructional program and where the attendance of the children is not included in the attendance figures for the district.

Welfare Activities. Activities pertaining to the provision of personal needs of individuals who have been designated as needy by an appropriate governmental entity. These needs include stipends for school attendance; salaries paid to students for work performed (whether for the school district or for an outside concern); and funds for clothing, food, or other personal needs.

Other Community Services. Activities provided to the community that cannot be classified under the other program 800 codes.

 
900 Co-curricular and Extra-curricular Activities. Activities that add to a student's educational experience but are not related to educational activities. These activities typically include events and activities that take place outside the traditional classroom. Some examples of such activities are student government, athletics, band, choir, clubs, and honors societies.

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Footnote

*Prekindergarten refers to all programs and ages preceding kindergarten, including infant and early childhood programs.

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