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Technology in Schools
NCES 2003-313
November 2002

Appendix

Appendix A-Data Elements and Term Definitions

A1. List of key questions and indicators, indexed to data elements

CHAPTER 1: TECHNOLOGY PLANNING AND POLICIES

TP1. Are there technology policies?

Policy development process exists; technology policies are approved or in process; policies are in place.
  —  Data Elements: TP001-TP005

TP2. Is there a technology plan?

Pre-planning phase completed or underway; major planning components are present; technology plan is approved.
  —  Data Elements: TP006-TP009

Percentage of total technology plan budget that has funds committed to its support; percentage of federal funding, state funding; funding through other (local or private) sources.
  —  Data Elements: TP010-TP012

TP3. Is the plan being implemented?

Status of each major plan component; plan schedule and benchmarks being met.
  —  Data Elements: TP013, TP014

TP4. Is the plan being evaluated?

Review cycle is implemented.
  —  Data Element: TP015

Review cycle includes accountability components.
  —  Data Element: TP016

There is a provision for revision of the plan.
  —  Data Element: TP017

The review is detailed in a published report, available to the school and community.
  —  Data Element: TP018

The technology plan has been modified on the basis of the most recent evaluation review.
  —  Data Element: TP019

The school or district is achieving technology plan goals.
  —  Data Element: TP020

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CHAPTER 2: FINANCE

FI1. How does your school district compare in technology expenditures with others in your state?

Expenditure comparisons for equipment (administrative, instructional): as a percentage of total technology expenditures; average per student, per teacher or administrative staff member, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, FI001, FI002

Comparisons for expenditures for connectivity and infrastructure upgrades: per student, per building.
  —  Data Element: GC004, GC011, FI003

Comparisons for expenditures for applications (software) (administrative, instructional): as a percentage of total technology expenditures; average per student, per teacher or administrative staff member, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, FI004, FI005

Comparisons for expenditures for maintenance and support (personnel, non-personnel): as a percentage of total technology expenditures; average per student, per computer, per building.
  —  Data Element: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, EI001, EI068, FI006, FI007

Comparisons for professional development (administrative, instructional): as a percentage of total technology expenditures; average per student, per administrative staff member or teacher, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, FI008, FI009

FI2. How much was spent in the past academic year for instructional and administrative equipment purchases?

Expenditures for (instructional, administrative) equipment: as a percentage of the amount originally budgeted; average per student, per teacher or administrative staff member, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, FI010, FI011

FI3. How much was spent for instructional and administrative applications and software?

Expenditures for (instructional, administrative) applications (software): as a percentage of total expenditures for instructional materials; as a percentage of the amount originally budgeted; average per student, per teacher, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, FI012, FI013

FI4. How much was spent for maintenance and support?

Expenditures for (technology support personnel, maintenance agreements and contracts, replacement components) as a percentage of the amounts originally budgeted; per student, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC011, FI014-FI016

FI5. How much was spent for instructional and administrative professional development?

Expenditures for (instructional, administrative) professional development as a percentage of amounts originally budgeted; average per student, per teacher or administrative staff member, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC010, GC011, FI017, FI018

Expenditures for (training materials, external consultants, presentations and workshops) as a percentage of total expenditures for (instructional, administrative) professional development.
  —  Data Elements: FI019-FI024

FI6. How much was spent for connectivity and infrastructure?

Average expenditures for connectivity and infrastructure per student, per teacher, per building.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC006, GC011, FI025

Expenditures for (telecommunications and Internet access, networking maintenance agreements and contracts, system or network monitoring software): as a percentage of amount budgeted, as a percentage of total expenditures for connectivity and infrastructure.
  —  Data Elements: FI026-FI028

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CHAPTER 3. EQUIPMENT AND INFRASTRUCTURE

EI1. Is equipment present in instructional settings?

Percentage of instructional settings with one or more (up-to-date computers, multimedia computers, computers connected to the Internet).
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI002, EI007, EI014

Average number of (up-to-date computers, multimedia computers, computers connected to the Internet) per instructional setting.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI001, EI006, EI013

Two-way videoconferencing capability: availability, percentage of instructional settings with equipment.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI022, EI023

Graphing calculators: availability, percentage of instructional settings with equipment, average number of students per graphing calculator.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI024-EI026

Percentage of instructional settings with external input devices (such as DVD players or videocassette recorders).
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI027-EI029

Percentage of instructional settings with broadcast video receivers.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI030-EI032

Percentage of instructional settings with projection devices.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI033-EI038

Percentage of instructional settings with dedicated printer.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI039

EI2. Is equipment available for use by students?

Average number of students per (up-to-date computer, multimedia computer, computer connected to the Internet) dedicated to student use in instructional settings.
  —  Data Elements: EI041, EI042, EI045-EI048

Percentage of students (with regular access to multimedia computers, with regular access to computers connected to the Internet, with access only in computer laboratories, without regular access to computers).
  —  Data Elements: GC004, EI043-EI045, EI047

EI3. Is equipment available for use by teachers?

Percentage of teaching staff with access to a computer for instructional use, by location of access (at school, at home).
  —  Data Elements: GC005, EI049, EI050

Percentage of teaching staff with their own (dedicated) computer at school (by computer capabilities, type, Internet access, age).
  —  Data Elements: GC005, EI051-EI056, EI058-EI060

Teaching staff are allowed to take school-provided computers to their homes outside of school hours.
  —  Data Element: EI057

EI4. Is equipment available for use by administrators and staff?

Percentage of administrative or support staff with a dedicated, up-to-date computer (by computer capabilities, age, Internet access).
  —  Data Elements: GC007, EI061-EI068

EI5. Does the infrastructure have the capacity to support the school's technology needs?

Percentage of instructional settings with one or more up-to-date computers connected to a network.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, EI012

Ratio of staff to dedicated computers connected to a network (instructional, administrative and support).
  —  Data Elements:
GC005, GC007, EI055, EI063

Availability of bandwidth (to building).
  —  Data Element: EI021

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CHAPTER 4: TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS

TA1. Do the school or district's instructional applications support teaching and learning standards across the curriculum?

Existence and current status of software alignment plan (most likely at district or state level; may be for all subjects or for a specific curriculum area or grade).
  —  Data Element: TA001

Number of approved instructional and teacher-support applications in regular use (by subject area, grade and type).
  —  Data Element: TA004

Percentage of instructional applications aligned with one or more learning standards.
  —  Data Element: TA004, TA005

TA2. Is there software support for technology tool skill development?

Count of applications, by type, in use in instructional settings in the school or district that support tool skill development.
  —  Data Element: TA006

TA3. Does the school/district use technology applications to improve communication?

E-mail applications by type (School or district-wide, non-Internet; Internet-based; none).
  —  Data Element: TA007

E-mail: Percentage of (teachers, students) with active accounts.
  —  Data Elements: TA008, TA009

Existence of active district/school web site; usage; teacher participation.
  —  Data Elements: TA010-TA013

Use of Internet telephony ("voice over IP", voIP) in the school or district.
  —  Data Element: TA014

TA4. Does the school/district have appropriate software and systems to support primary administrative functions?

Availability of applications to support core administrative activities, by activity type.
  —  Data Element: TA015

Decision support tools are available to administrators, teachers, curriculum groups, parents and public; availability by information category.
  —  Data Elements: TA016-TA019

Availability and regular use of applications that support school/district Security and Acceptable Use Policies; by application type.
  —  Data Elements: TA020-TA021

TA5. Are the applications in use evaluated for effectiveness?

Existence of software evaluation plan; evaluation ratings by software category.
  —  Data Elements: TA022, TA023

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CHAPTER 5: MAINTENANCE AND SUPPORT

MS1. Are resources and processes in place to maintain technology?

Preventive maintenance schedule established; backup and disaster recovery procedures in place.
  —  Data Elements: MS001-MS004, MS020

Number and type of maintenance incidents, average downtime, average number of user calls to help desk, average time to repair (per workstation, per server) in the most recent academic year.
  —  Data Elements: MS005-MS012, EI001, EI068, EI069

Help desk, FAQ support (to help desk, to users), access to manuals.
  —  Data Elements: MS013-MS016

Replacement/upgrade schedule established (hardware and software).
  —  Data Element: MS017

Diagnostic software available (where appropriate); repair tools and parts available.
  —  Data Elements: MS018, MS019

MS2. Are personnel available to provide technical support?

Number of dedicated persons assigned to technical support (building, district level) and total FTE hours assigned to technical support (by primary area of responsibility).
  —  Data Elements: MS021-MS023

Average hours of technical support by source (building, district level).
  —  Data Element: MS024

Number and ratio of calls and incidents handled by FTE position; ratio of (workstations, servers, users) to technical support staff.
  —  Data Elements: MS025-MS028

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Chapter 6: Professional Development

PD1. What technology-related training and/or professional development do staff receive?

Hours of training/professional development, per staff FTE (instructional, administrative and support).
  —  Data Elements: GC006, GC010, PD003, PD007

Proportion of technology-related professional development to total professional development (instructional, administrative and support)
  —  Data Elements: PD003, PD004, PD007, PD008

Percentage of (teaching, administrative and support) staff with at least the minimum required number of hours of technology-related professional development.
  —  Data Elements: GC005, GC007, PD004, PD008, PD009, PD010

PD2. What are the goals, methods, incentives, and content of technology-related training and/or professional development for staff?

Existence of a written goal statement for technology-related professional development for staff (teaching, administrative and support); technology-related content areas covered in training and/or professional development for staff in the past academic year.
  —  Data Elements: PD011, PD012, PD015, PD016

Percentage of total hours of technology-related training and/or professional development provided through various means and using various incentives.
  —  Data Elements: PD013, PD014, PD017, PD018

PD3. How are training and/or professional development for staff evaluated?

Administrators, technology coordinators or curriculum supervisors/department heads receive training in evaluating staff technology proficiency or extent of integration of technology into the curriculum (teaching, administrative and support); existence of evaluation criteria for effects of training and/or professional development.
  —  Data Elements: PD019-PD022

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Chapter 7: Technology Integration

TI1. Are teachers proficient in the use of technology in the teaching/learning environment?

Percentage of teachers achieving acceptable performance on standards-based performance profiles of user skills.
  —  Data Elements: GC005, TI001

TI2. Are students proficient in the use of technology in the teaching/learning environment?

Count of courses that include training or instruction in technology tool skills in their contents.
  —  Data Element: TI002

Percentage of students who perform at or above grade-level-specific performance levels on standards-based profiles of user skills; percentage of students demonstrating competency on the Basic Skills, Critical Literacies, and Construction Skills scales.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, TI003-TI006

Percentage of students using computer-based assistive or adaptive technologies to compensate for disabilities or limitations; percentage of instructional settings with available computer-based assistive or adaptive technologies.
  —  Data Elements: GC001, GC004, TI007, TI008

TI3. Are administrators and support staff proficient in the use of technology in support of school management?

Percentage of administrators achieving acceptable performance on standards-based performance profiles of user skills; percentage of support staff achieving acceptable technology proficiency.
  —  Data Elements: GC008, GC009, TI009, TI010

Percentage of administrators and support staff using computer-based technologies on a variety of administrative tasks.
  —  Data Elements: GC008, GC009, TI011, TI012

TI4. Is technology integrated into the teaching/learning environment?

Percentage of teachers and students using computer-based technologies on a variety of instructional and instruction-related tasks.
  —  Data Elements: GC004, GC005, TI013, TI014

Count of courses offered through both external (state or regional) and internal (district-wide) distance education.
  —  Data Element: TI015

TI5. Are technology proficiencies and measures incorporated into teaching and learning standards?

Inclusion of technology in standards (in general or subject-area for students, for teachers).
  — Data Elements: TI016-TI019

TI6. Are technology proficiencies and measures incorporated into student assessment?

Inclusion of technology-related items in student assessments.
  —  Data Element: TI020

Count of student assessments that are technology-based.
  —  Data Element: TI021

TI7. Is technology incorporated into administrative processes?

Extent of integration in administrative tasks for a number of administrative processes.
  —  Data Elements: TI022-TI044

Percentage of teachers using computer-based technologies on instruction-related administrative tasks.
  —  Data Elements: GC005, TI045

TI8. Is technology proficiency integrated into the evaluation of instructional and administrative staff?

Inclusion of technology-related items in evaluation (teacher, administrator and support staff).
  —  Data Elements: TI046-TI048

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