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Safety in Numbers: Collecting and Using Crime, Violence, and Discipline Incident Data to Make a Difference in Schools
Home/Introduction
Chapter 1
  Using Data to Make a Difference
Chapter 2
    Meeting the Challenges of Data Collection
Chapter 3
    Reporting Incident Data
Chapter 4
    Collecting Data
Conclusions
Endnotes
References
Appendices
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Chapter 4: Collecting Data


4.1  Incident Data and Codes 4.2  Perpetrator Information
  Incident Identifier   Perpetrator
  School Number   Perpetrator ID
  Incident Date   Perpetrator Injury
  Time 4.3 Victim Information
  Location (Where)   Victim
  Facilities Code   Victim ID
  Cost   Victim Injury
  Reporter 4.4 Discipline Information
  Reporter ID   Disciplinary Action
  Weapon Type   Start Date of Disciplinary Action
  Injury   End Date of Disciplinary Action
  Reported to Law Enforcement   Duration of Disciplinary Action
  Related Elements   Related to Special Education Manifestation Hearing
      Alcohol-Related   Related to Zero Tolerance Policy
      Drug-Related   Full Year Expulsion
      Gang-Related   Shortened Expulsion
      Hate-Related    
      Weapon-Related    
  Incident Codes    

4.4 Discipline Information

The codes described in this section are those necessary to capture information about the outcome of the incident, including the type of punishment that was assigned and its duration. The database structure described above permits multiple disciplinary actions to be recorded for each incident-not only more than one per incident, but also more than one per participant.

Disciplinary Action. This variable identifies the consequences of the incident to the student(s) involved in the incident.22 It is a comprehensive list and was developed to be as inclusive as possible. Some codes may not be appropriate to individual schools and districts given local policies and procedures. Use only those that apply.
Note that, when data is requested by the U.S. Department of Education, for example, multiple codes might fit each disciplinary action specified by a data collection. To illustrate, the Office for Civil Rights collects information on out-of-school suspensions (see appendix A). Disciplinary actions described as change of placement (codes 120-150) may be categorized as out-of-school suspensions by some jurisdictions and would be reported as such for those localities.

These codes are presented alphabetically. Individual schools, districts, or states may wish to assign a hierarchy based on locally defined parameters for severity of the penalty.

100 Bus suspension The student was prohibited from riding the school bus.
110 Change of placement (long-term) The student was permanently (i.e., for at least one semester) reassigned to another school facility or program that allowed him/her to continue to participate in the general curriculum at a school setting, including students receiving prescribed special education services who continued to receive these services.23
120 Change of placement (reassignment), pending an expulsion hearing The student was assigned to an interim alternative setting that allowed him/her to continue to participate in the general curriculum at a school setting pending an expulsion hearing called as a consequence of the incident. Included here students receiving prescribed special education services who continued to receive these services.24
130 Change of placement (reassignment), resulting from an expulsion hearing The student was assigned, as a result of an expulsion hearing, to an interim alternative setting that allowed him/her to continue to participate in the general curriculum at a school setting. Included here students receiving prescribed special education services who continue to receive these services.25
140 Change of placement (reassignment), temporary The student was removed from his or her regular classroom and assigned to an interim alternative setting that allowed him/her to continue to participate in the general curriculum at a school setting for a period of time less than one semester. Included here students receiving prescribed special education services who continue to receive these services.
150 Community service The student was assigned to perform community service (e.g., cleanup work).
See also: 330-Restitution and 430-Work Detail.

160 Conference with and warning to student An administrator discussed the incident with the student and issued a warning regarding the consequences of subsequent offenses.
See also: 320-Reprimand.

170 Conference with and warning to student and parent/guardian An administrator discussed the incident with the student, issued a warning regarding the consequences of subsequent offenses, and contacted the parent/guardian to discuss the incident.
See also: 320-Reprimand.

180 Confiscation of contraband Taking away an item(s) defined as prohibited by school or district policy.
190 Conflict resolution or anger management services mandated The student was required to participate in conflict resolution or anger management counseling or classes.
See also: 210-Counseling.

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200 Corporal punishment The student was physically punished (e.g., paddled) in accordance with state laws where legal.
210 Counseling mandated The student was required to participate in a counseling program.
See also: 360-Substance abuse counseling.

220 Demerit The student received a mark of poor conduct.
See also: 420-Unsatisfactory behavior grade.

230 Detention The student was assigned to before- or after-school detention or detention at lunch.
See also: 380-Suspension after school.

240 Expulsion recommendation The student was removed from his or her regular classroom, barred from school grounds, and the principal asked the school district to expel the student.
See also: 120-Change of placement pending an expulsion hearing.

250 Expulsion with services The student was expelled from his/her regular school setting with arrangements for the provision of education services.
See also: 140-Change of placement resulting from an expulsion hearing.

260 Expulsion without services The student was expelled from all school district settings, with total cessation of educational services.
270 Juvenile justice referral The student was referred to juvenile justice authorities.
280 Law enforcement referral The incident was reported to law enforcement officials.
290 Letter of apology The student was required to submit a formal letter of apology.

300 Loss of privileges The student lost a privilege (e.g., recess, parking).
See also: 350-School probation.

310 Physical activity The student was required to participate in a physical activity (e.g., running laps, pushups).
320 Reprimand The student was rebuked.
See also: 160-170-Conference.
330 Restitution The student was required to make restitution for the damages caused by the incident.
See also: 150-Community service.

340 Saturday school The student was assigned to attend Saturday school.
350 School probation The student was restricted from school or school functions.
See also: 300-Loss of privileges.

360 Substance abuse counseling mandated The student was required to participate in substance abuse counseling.
See also: 210-Counseling.

370 Substance abuse treatment mandated The student was required to participate in substance abuse treatment.
380 Suspension after school The student was assigned to a suspension after-school program.
See also: 140-Detention.

390 Suspension, in-school The student was removed from his or her regular classroom and assigned to an in-school-suspension program.

400 Suspension, out-of-school, with services The student was removed from his or her regular classroom and barred from school grounds for a specified length of time and continued to receive educational services.
410 Suspension, out-of-school, without services The student was removed from his or her regular classroom and barred from school grounds for a specified length of time and did not receive educational services.
420 Unsatisfactory behavior grade The student received an official appraisal from school personnel that indicated unsatisfactory behavior.
See also: 130-Demerit.

430 Work detail The student was assigned to a work detail.
See also: 150-Community service.

440 No action No action was taken in response to the incident.
997 Other There was a consequence to the perpetrator because of his or her actions, but none of the above codes apply.
998 None No consequences resulted from the perpetrator's actions.
999 Unknown It is unknown if any consequences resulted from the perpetrator's actions.

Note: Where subsequent events such as a hearing or appeal result in changes to the consequences of an incident, it is necessary that the database be updated to reflect the final action(s).

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Start Date of Disciplinary Action. This variable is used to record the date on which the disciplinary action begins. Use two digits to capture the day, two digits to capture the month, and four digits to capture the year: MM-DD-YYYY. (Consideration of computer operating systems will dictate the format in which the data are stored.)

End Date of Disciplinary Action. This variable is used to record the date through which the disciplinary action is in effect. Use two digits to capture the day, two digits to capture the month, and four digits to capture the year: MM-DD-YYYY. (Consideration of computer operating systems will dictate the format in which the data are stored.)

Duration of Disciplinary Action. This variable is used to record the length, in school days, of the disciplinary action. Use decimal places for fractions of school days (e.g., when a student is removed from only a single class period in an 8 period day, .125 is a single class period).

Related to Special Education Manifestation Hearing. This variable records whether or not any of the disciplinary actions taken against a student were imposed as a consequence of the incident were related to a special education manifestation hearing.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Related to Zero Tolerance Policy.26 This variable records whether or not any of the disciplinary actions taken against a student were imposed as a consequence of state or local zero tolerance policies.

1 = Yes
2 = No

Full Year Expulsion. An expulsion with or without services for a period of one full year (i.e., 365 days).

1 = Yes
2 = No

Shortened Expulsion. An expulsion with or without services that is shortened to a term of less than one year by the superintendent or chief administrator of a school district.

1 = Yes
2 = No



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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education