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Safety in Numbers: Collecting and Using Crime, Violence, and Discipline Incident Data to Make a Difference in Schools
Home/Introduction
Chapter 1
  Using Data to Make a Difference
Chapter 2
    Meeting the Challenges of Data Collection
Chapter 3
    Reporting Incident Data
Chapter 4
    Collecting Data
Conclusions
Endnotes
References
Appendices
PDF File (491 KB)

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Ghedam Bairu

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Chapter 4: Collecting Data


4.1  Incident Data and Codes 4.2  Perpetrator Information
  Incident Identifier   Perpetrator
  School Number   Perpetrator ID
  Incident Date   Perpetrator Injury
  Time 4.3 Victim Information
  Location (Where)   Victim
  Facilities Code   Victim ID
  Cost   Victim Injury
  Reporter 4.4 Discipline Information
  Reporter ID   Disciplinary Action
  Weapon Type   Start Date of Disciplinary Action
  Injury   End Date of Disciplinary Action
  Reported to Law Enforcement   Duration of Disciplinary Action
  Related Elements   Related to Special Education Manifestation Hearing
      Alcohol-Related   Related to Zero Tolerance Policy
      Drug-Related   Full Year Expulsion
      Gang-Related   Shortened Expulsion
      Hate-Related    
      Weapon-Related    
  Incident Codes    

Incident Codes. This section presents recommendations for categorizing behavior incidents into specific incident codes. These codes are presented alphabetically. Users may wish to assign a hierarchy so that the code assigned describes the most serious component of the incident (where multiple components exist). A hierarchy could be based on capturing the type of problem behavior that causes the most injury or greatest loss of property, or it could be based on locally defined parameters. As noted earlier, some incident codes are structured so that one can choose to record specific types of violations (e.g., attendance policy violations). Also as noted above, only record specific information if it will be useful. More specific information on certain types of misbehavior (e.g., 3600-Violation of School Rules) might be of use to a school or district. The use of subcodes as necessary will meet these needs.

In some cases, it may be difficult to determine the code that most accurately describes an incident. For example, a fight could be construed as a more serious (1300-Battery) or less serious (2500-Physical altercation, minor) incident. Training staff on how to apply definitions is important to accurate reporting. Similarities are identified below with references to other codes that may describe an incident more accurately.

Note: Many incidents described here are illegal behaviors and need to be reported to law enforcement in addition to any action taken by school officials.
                                                                                
1000  Alcohol (liquor law violations: possession, use, sale) Violation of laws or ordinances prohibiting the manufacture, sale, purchase, transportation, possession, or consumption of intoxicating alcoholic beverages or substances represented as alcohol. Suspicion of being under the influence of alcohol may be included if it results in disciplinary action.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  1010 Sale of alcohol Selling alcoholic beverages.
  1020 Distribution of alcohol Distributing (i.e., giving away) alcoholic beverages.
  1030 Drinking alcohol Drinking alcoholic beverages.
  1040 Possession of alcohol Having alcoholic beverages in one's pocket(s), bag(s), car, locker, etc.
  1050 Suspicion of alcohol use Exhibiting behaviors that suggests that an individual consumed alcohol.
  1097 Other alcohol The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve an alcohol violation.
Note: When an incident involves two or more alcohol offenses, code the most serious.

1100 Arson (Setting a Fire) To unlawfully and intentionally damage, or attempt to damage, any school or personal property by fire or incendiary device. Firecrackers, fireworks, and trashcan fires would be included in this category if they were contributing factors to a damaging fire.
Notes: Without a fire, firecrackers and fireworks should be coded as disruptive behavior. This category does not include a simple act of lighting a match.

1200 Attendance Policy Violation (Not Attending School or Classes as Required) Violation of state, school district, or school policy relating to attendance.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  1210 Forging absence excuse To be locally defined.
  1220 Skipping class To be locally defined.
  1230 Tardiness To be locally defined.
  1240 Truancy To be locally defined.
  1297 Other attendance policy violation The incident above cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve an attendance policy violation.

1300 Battery (Physical Attack/Harm) Touching or striking of another person against his or her will or intentionally causing bodily harm to an individual.

Examples: Striking that causes bleeding, broken nose; kicking while a student is down.
Notes: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category. This category should be used when the attack is serious enough to warrant calling the police or security or when serious bodily harm occurs. Include an attack with a weapon in this category. (This offense may be referred to by law enforcement as aggravated assault.)

See also: 1700-Fighting and 2500-Physical Altercation, Minor.

1400 Burglary/Breaking and Entering (Stealing Property/Unlawful Entry) Unlawful entry or attempted entry into a building or other structure with the intent to commit a crime.
Example: Offender forces a door or uses a mechanical contrivance (e.g., passkey, skeleton key) to unlawfully enter a school for the purpose of burglarizing.
Notes:When using this code, record the value of any property loss or the cost of repairing or replacing any damaged property under "Cost." It is not necessary that force be used in gaining entry; neither is it necessary that property loss occur.

See also: 2600-Robbery, 3100-Theft, 3400-Trespassing, and 3500-Vandalism.

1500 Disorderly Conduct (Disruptive Behavior) Any act that disrupts the orderly conduct of a school function; behavior which substantially disrupts the orderly learning environment.
See also: 2200-Insubordination and 3600-Violation of School Rules.

1600 Drugs Excluding Alcohol and Tobacco (Illegal Drug Possession, Sale, Use/Under the Influence) Unlawful use, cultivation, manufacture, distribution, sale, solicitation, purchase, possession, transportation, or importation of any controlled drug (e.g., demerol, morphine) or narcotic substance. 16
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  1610 Sale of illegal Drug Selling illegal drugs.
  1620 Sale of substance represented as an illegal drug Selling a substance represented as an illegal drug (e.g., selling oregano represented as marijuana).
  1630 Distribution of illegal drug Distributing (i.e., giving away) illegal drugs.
  1640 Distribution of substance represented as an illegal drug Distributing (i.e., giving away) substance represented as an illegal drug.
  1650 Use of illegal drug Smoking, snorting, injecting, ingesting, or otherwise using an illegal drug.
  1660 Possession of illegal drug Having an illegal drug in one's pocket(s), bag(s), car, locker, etc.
  1670 Possession of drug paraphernalia Having equipment (e.g., bong) for use in consuming illegal drugs in one's pocket(s), bag(s), car, locker, etc.
  1680 Suspicion of use An instance where an individual's behavior, breath, etc., suggests that he or she used illegal drugs.
  1697 Other drug offense The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve illegal drugs.
Note: When an incident involves two or more drug offenses, code the most serious.

See also: 2100-Inappropriate Use of Medication.

1700  Fighting (Mutual Altercation) Mutual participation in an incident involving physical violence, where there is no major injury.
Notes: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category. Where serious injury occurs, the incident may be coded as battery for all participants. Does not include verbal confrontations, tussles, or other minor confrontations. (This offense may be referred to by law enforcement as simple assault.)

See also: 1300-Battery and 2500-Physical Altercation, Minor.

1800 Harassment, Nonsexual (Physical, Verbal, or Psychological) Repeatedly annoying or attacking a student or group of students or other personnel which creates an intimidating or hostile educational or work environment.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  1810 Bullying Repeated negative behaviors intended to frighten or cause discomfort. These may include, but are not limited to verbal or written threats or physical harm.
  1820 Hazing Committing an act or acts against a student or coercing a student to commit an act that creates risk of harm to a person in order to be initiated into a student organization or class.
  1897 Other nonsexual harassment The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve nonsexual harassment.
Note: When above incidents are hate-related, administrators need to record code "Hate-Related" (see variable 1240) as Yes.

See also: 3200-Threat/Intimidation.

1900 Harassment, Sexual (Unwelcome Sexual Conduct) Unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, other physical or verbal conduct or communication of a sexual nature, including gender-based harassment that creates an intimidating, hostile, or offensive educational or work environment.
Examples: Leering; pinching; grabbing; suggestive comments, gestures, or jokes; or pressure to engage in sexual activity.
Note: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category.
See also: 1800-Harassment, Nonsexual and 2400-Obscene Behavior.

2000 Homicide (Murder or Manslaughter)

Killing a human being.
2100 Inappropriate Use of Medication (Prescription or over-the-counter) Use, possession, or distribution of any prescription or over-the-counter medication (e.g., aspirin, cough syrups, caffeine pills, nasal sprays) in violation of school policy.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  2110 Sale of medication Selling prescription or over-the-counter medication.
  2120 Distribution of medication Distributing (i.e., giving away) prescription or over-the-counter medicine in violation of school rules.
  2130 Use of medication in violation of school rules Using prescription or over-the-counter medicine in violation of school rules.
  2140 Possession of medication in violation of school rules Having prescription or over-the-counter medication in one's pocket(s), bag(s), car, locker, etc., in violation of school rules
  2150 Suspicion of use of medication in violation of school rules An instance where an individual's behavior, breath, etc.,suggests that he or she used prescription or over-the-counter drugs in violation of school rules.
  2197 Other inappropriate use of medication The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve the use of prescription or over-the-counter medication in violation of school rules.
Note: When an incident involves two or more inappropriate uses of medicine offenses, code the most serious.

See also: 1600-Drugs.

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2200 Insubordination (Disobedience) Unwillingness to submit to authority, refusal to respond to a reasonable request, or other situations in which a student is disobedient.
See also: 1500-Disorderly conduct.

2300 Kidnapping (Abduction) Unlawful seizure, transportation, and/or detention of a person against his/her will, or of a minor without the consent of his/her custodial parent(s) or legal guardian. This category includes hostage-taking.

2400 Obscene Behavior Language or actions, written, oral, physical, or electronic, in violation of community or school standards.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  2410 Displays of affection in violation of school policy Holding hands, kissing, sexual touching, or other displays of affection in violation of school policy.
  2420 Obscene written messages Writing obscene messages on paper, on black boards, or elsewhere on school property (e.g., on bathroom wall).
  2430 Drawing obscene pictures Creating illustrations of a sexually explicit or vulgar nature.
  2440 Obscene electronic communication Posting obscene messages on Internet message boards, sending obscenities via Internet chat rooms/instant messaging, and downloading or emailing obscene material.
  2450 Obscene gestures Gestures that are offensive, socially unacceptable, or otherwise not suitable for an educational setting.
  2460 Obscene language/profanity Suggestive, explicit, or vulgar language, cursing, or abusive language, or demeaning remarks.
  2497 Other obscene behavior The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve obscene behavior.
Note: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category.

See also: 1900-Harassment, Sexual and 2900-Sex Offenses, Other.

2500 Physical Altercation, Minor (Pushing, Shoving) Confrontation, tussle, or physical aggression that does not result in injury.
Note: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category.

See also: 1300-Battery, 1700-Fighting, and 1810-Bullying.

2600 Robbery(Taking of Things by Force) The taking of, or attempting to take, anything of value that is owned by another person or organization under confrontational circumstances by force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting the victim in fear. A key difference between robbery and theft is that the threat of physical harm or actual physical harm is involved in a robbery.
Note:When using this code record the value of the taken item(s) under "Cost."

See also: 1400-Burglary and 3100-Theft.

2700 School Threat (Threat of Destruction or Harm) Any threat (verbal, written, or electronic) by a person to bomb or use other substances or devices for the purpose of exploding, burning, causing damage to a school building or school property, or to harm students or staff.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  2710 Bomb threat Intentionally making a false report of potential harm from a bomb, dynamite, explosive, or arson-causing device.
  2720 Fire alarm Verbally or otherwise (e.g., ringing alarm bells) making a false report of fire.
  2730 Chemical/biological threat Intentionally making a false report of potential harm from dangerous chemicals or biological agents.
  2740 Terroristic threat Making terroristic threats to harm students or school officials, and/or to destroy school property.
  2797 Other school threat The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve a school threat.
See also: 3200-Threat/Intimidation.

2800 Sexual Battery (Sexual assault) Oral, anal, or vaginal penetration forcibly or against the person's will or where the victim is incapable of giving consent. Includes rape, fondling, indecent liberties, child molestation, and sodomy.
Note: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category.

See also: 2900-Sex Offenses, Other.

2900 Sexual Offenses, Other (Lewd Behavior, Indecent Exposure) Sexual intercourse, sexual contact, or other behavior intended to result in sexual gratification without force or threat of force. Code statutory rape here.
Note: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category.

See also: 2400-Obscene Behavior and 2800-Sexual Battery.

3000 Suicide Act or instance of taking one's own life voluntarily and intentionally.
Incidents can be specifically coded as:
  3010 Suicide Taking one's own life voluntarily and intentionally.
  3020 Attempted suicide Attempting to take one's own life voluntarily and intentionally.
  3097 Other suicide offense The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve the threat or mention of suicide.
3100 Theft (Stealing Personal or School Property) The unlawful taking of property belonging to another person without threat, violence or bodily harm. Electronic theft of data should be coded here. Do not include dealing in stolen goods in this category (see 9900-Other Offenses).
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  3110 Theft, General Taking or attempting to take money or property belonging to another person or the school with the intent to permanently deprive the victim of his or her possessions.
  3120 Motor Vehicle Theft17 Theft of a motor vehicle. This category includes theft of a car, truck, motorcycle, dune buggy, snowmobile, RV, or anything that is self-propelled.
  3197 Other theft The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve theft.
Notes: When using this code record the value of the stolen item(s) under "Cost." Consider coding theft of low value items (e.g., pencil, pad of paper) as 3600-Violation of School Rules.

See also: 1400-Burglary and 2600-Robbery.

3200 Threat/Intimidation (Causing Fear of Harm) Physical, verbal, written, or electronic action which immediately creates fear of harm, without displaying a weapon and without subjecting the victim to actual physical attack.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  3210 Physical threat Threatening an individual or group of individuals with a gesture(s) or body language.
  3220 Verbal threat Threatening an individual or group of individuals with spoken words or sounds.
  3230 Written threat Threatening an individual or group of individuals in writing (e.g., letter, note, message on chalkboard).
  3240 Electronic threat Threatening an individual or group of individuals by email, postings on Internet sites, or through other electronic mechanisms.
  3297 Other threat The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve a threat.
Note: Consider age and developmentally appropriate behavior before using this category.

See also: 1800-Harassment, Nonsexual, 1810-Bullying, 1820-Hazing, 2700-School Threat, and 3700-Weapon Possession.

3300 Tobacco (Possession or Use) Possession, use, distribution, or sale of tobacco products.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  3310 Sale of tobacco Sale of tobacco products (e.g., cigarettes, chewing tobacco).
  3320 Distribution of tobacco Distribution (i.e., giving away) tobacco products.
  3330 Use of tobacco Smoking, chewing, or otherwise using tobacco.
  3340 Possession of tobacco Having tobacco in one's pocket(s), bag(s), car, locker, etc.
  3350 Suspicion of use of tobacco An instance where an individual's behavior, breath, etc., suggests that he or she used tobacco.
  3397 Other tobacco offense The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve tobacco.
3400 Trespassing (Unlawful or Unauthorized Presence) To enter or remain on a public school campus or school board facility without authorization or invitation and with no lawful purpose for entry.
See also: 1400-Burglary and 3500-Vandalism.

3500 Vandalism (Damage to School or Personal Property) Willful destruction or defacement of school or personal property.
Violations can be specifically coded as:
  3510 Vandalism of school property Willful destruction or defacement of school property.
  3520 Vandalism of personal property Willful destruction or defacement of personal property.
  3597 Other vandalism The incident cannot be coded in one of the above categories but did involve vandalism.
Examples: Destroying school computer records, carving initials or words in desk top, spray painting on walls, or damaging vehicles.
Note:When using this code record the cost of repairing or replacing the damaged property under "Cost."

See also: 1400-Burglary and 3400-Tresspassing.

3600 Violation of School Rules (Disobeying School Policy) This category comprises misbehavior not captured elsewhere. Problem behaviors could include dress code violations, running in the halls, possession of contraband, cheating, lying to authorities, or falsifying records.
See also: 1500-Disorderly conduct.

3700 Weapons Possession (Firearms and Other Weapons) Possession of an instrument or object to inflict harm on other persons. Both firearms and other weapons should be coded here.
Notes: When using this code, remember to record the type of weapon involved under "Weapon Type." If a weapon was used in the commission of another offense (e.g., battery, homicide) use that code to capture the event and code "Weapon-Related" as yes.

See also: 3200-Threat/Intimidation.

9000 Other Offenses (e.g., Forgery, Extortion) Any significant incident resulting in disciplinary action not classified previously. Offenses could include bribery, fraud, embezzlement, forgery, resisting arrest, gambling, extortion, or dealing in stolen property.
Note: Whenever possible, insert additional subcodes under already existing codes. For example, if it is necessary to create a new category of School Threat, do so under code 2700 the School Threat category.

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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education