Appendix D
Glossary
Data Terms:
 A  B  C
 D  E  F
 G  H  I
 J  K  L  M  N  O  P
 Q  R  S  T
 U  V  W  X  Y  Z 
Statistical Terms:
 A  B  C  D  E
 F  G  H  I  J  K 
L  M  N  O  P
 Q  R  S  T
 U  V  W  X  Y  Z 
Data Terms
Associate's degree: A degree granted
for the successful completion of a subbaccalaureate program of
studies, usually requiring at least 2 years (or the equivalent)
of fulltime collegelevel study. This term includes degrees granted
in a cooperative or workstudy program.
Average daily attendance (ADA): The aggregate attendance
of a school during a reporting period (normally a school year)
divided by the number of days school is in session during this
period. Only days on which the pupils are under the guidance and
direction of teachers should be considered days in session.
Average daily membership (ADM): The aggregate membership
of a school during a reporting period (normally a school year)
divided by the number of days school is in session during this
period. Only days on which the pupils are under the guidance and
direction of teachers should be considered as days in session.
The average daily membership for groups of schools having varying
lengths of terms is the average of the average daily memberships
obtained for the individual schools.
Bachelor's degree: A degree granted for
the successful completion of a baccalaureate program of studies,
usually requiring at least 4 years (or the equivalent) of fulltime
collegelevel study. This term includes degrees granted in a cooperative
or workstudy program.
Classroom teacher: A staff member assigned
the professional activities of instructing pupils in selfcontained
classes or courses, or in classroom situations. Usually expressed
in fulltime equivalents.
Cohort: A group of individuals that have a statistical
factor in common, for example, year of birth.
College: A postsecondary school that offers a general
or liberal arts education, usually leading to an associate, bachelor's,
master's, doctor's, or firstprofessional degree. Junior colleges
and community colleges are included in this term.
Constant dollars: Dollar amounts that have been adjusted
by means of price and cost indexes to eliminate inflationary factors
and allow direct comparison across years.
Consumer Price Index (CPI): This price index measures
the average change in the cost of a fixed market basket of goods
and services purchased by consumers.
Current dollars: Dollar amounts that have not been adjusted
to compensate for inflation.
Current expenditures (elementary/secondary): The expenditures
for operating local public schools, excluding capital outlay and
interest on school debt. These expenditures include such items
as salaries for school personnel, fixed charges, student transportation,
school books and materials, and energy costs.
Current expenditures per pupil in average daily attendance:
Current expenditures for the regular school term divided by the
average daily attendance of fulltime pupils (or fulltimeequivalency
of pupils) during the term. See also current expenditures
and average daily attendance.
Currentfund expenditures (higher education): Money spent
to meet current operating costs, including salaries, wages, utilities,
student services, public services, research libraries, scholarships
and fellowships, auxiliary enterprises, hospitals, and independent
operations. Excludes loans, capital expenditures, and investments.
Current Population Survey: See Appendix
C, Data Sources.
Degreegranting institutions: Postsecondary
institutions that are eligible for Title IV federal financial
aid programs and that grant an associate's or higher degree. For
an institution to be eligible to participate in Title IV financial
aid programs it must offer a program of at least 300 clock hours
in length, have accreditation recognized by the U.S. Department
of Education, have been in business for at least 2 years, and
have signed a participation agreement with the Department.
Disposable income: Current income received by persons
less their contributions for social insurance, personal tax, and
nontax payments. It is the income available to persons for spending
and saving. Nontax payments include passport fees, fines and penalties,
donations, and tuitions and fees paid to schools and hospitals
operated mainly by the government. See also personal income.
Doctor's degree: An earned degree carrying the title
of doctor. The Doctor of Philosophy degree (Ph.D.) is the highest
academic degree and requires mastery within a field of knowledge
and demonstrated ability to perform scholarly research. Other
doctorates are awarded for fulfilling specialized requirements
in professional fields, such as education (Ed.D.), musical arts
(D.M.A.), business administration (D.B.A.), and engineering (D.Eng.
or D.E.S.). Many doctor's degrees in both academic and professional
fields require an earned master's degree as a prerequisite. Firstprofessional
degrees, such as M.D. and D.D.S., are not included under this
heading.
Educational and general expenditures:
The sum of current funds expenditures on instruction, research,
public service, academic support, student services, institutional
support, operation and maintenance of plant, and awards from restricted
and unrestricted funds.
Elementary school: A school classified as elementary
by state and local practice and composed of any span of grades
not above grade 8. A preschool or kindergarten school is included
under this heading only if it is an integral part of an elementary
school or a regularly established school system.
Elementary and secondary schools: As used in this publication,
includes only regular schools, that is, schools that are part
of state and local school systems and also most private elementary
and secondary schools, both religiously affiliated and nonsectarian.
Schools not included in this term are subcollegiate departments
of institutions of higher education, American residential schools
for exceptional children, federal schools for Indians, and federal
schools on military posts and other federal installations.
Enrollment: The number of students registered in a given
school unit at a given time, generally in the fall of a year.
Expenditures: Charges incurred, whether paid or unpaid,
that are presumed to benefit the current fiscal year. For elementary
and secondary schools, these include all charges for current outlays
plus capital outlays and interest on school debt. For institutions
of higher education, these include current outlays plus capital
outlays. For government, these include charges net of recoveries
and other correcting transactions other than for retirement of
debt, investment in securities, or extension of credit. Government
expenditures include only external transactions, such as the provision
of perquisites or other payments in kind. Aggregates for groups
of governments exclude intergovernmental transactions.
Expenditures per pupil: Charges incurred for a particular
period of time divided by a student unit of measure, such as average
daily attendance or average daily membership.
Firstprofessional degree: A degree that
signifies both completion of the academic requirements for beginning
practice in a given profession and a level of professional skill
beyond that normally required for a bachelor's degree. This degree
is based on a program requiring at least 2 academic years of work
before entrance and a total of at least 6 academic years of work
to complete the degree program, including both prior required
college work and the professional program itself. By NCES definition,
firstprofessional degrees are awarded in the fields of dentistry
(D.D.S. or D.M.D.), medicine (M.D.), optometry (O.D.), osteopathic
medicine (D.O.), pharmacy (D.Phar.), podiatry (D.P.M.), veterinary
medicine (D.V.M.), chiropractic (D.C. or D.C.M.), law (LL.B. or
J.D.), and theological professions (M.Div. or M.H.L.).
Firstprofessional enrollment: The number of students
enrolled in a professional school or program that requires at
least 2 years of academic college work for entrance and a total
of at least 6 years for a degree. By NCES definition, firstprofessional
enrollment includes only students in certain programs. (See firstprofessional
degree for a list of programs.)
Fulltime enrollment: The number of students enrolled
in higher education courses with total credit load equal to at
least 75 percent of the normal fulltime course load.
Fulltimeequivalent (FTE) enrollment: For institutions
of higher education, enrollment of fulltime students, plus the
fulltime equivalent of parttime students as reported by institutions.
In the absence of an equivalent reported by an institution, the
FTE enrollment is estimated by adding onethird of parttime enrollment
to fulltime enrollment.
Fulltime worker: In educational institutions, an employee
whose position requires being on the job on school days throughout
the school year at least the number of hours the schools are in
session; for higher education, a member of an educational institution's
staff who is employed full time.
Graduate: An individual who has received
formal recognition for the successful completion of a prescribed
program of studies.
Graduate enrollment: The number of students who hold the
bachelor's or firstprofessional degree, or the equivalent, and
who are working toward a master's or doctor's degree. Firstprofessional
students are counted separately. These enrollment data measure
those students who are registered at a particular time during
the fall. At some institutions, graduate enrollment also includes
students who are in postbaccalaureate classes but not in degree
programs.
High school: A secondary school offering
the final years of high school work necessary for graduation,
usually including grades 10, 11, and 12 (in a 633 plan), or
grades 9, 10, 11, and 12 (in a 624 plan).
Higher education: Study beyond secondary school at an
institution that offers programs terminating in an associate,
baccalaureate, or higher degree.
Higher education institutions (traditional classifications):
4year institution: An institution legally authorized
to offer and offering at least a 4year program of collegelevel
studies wholly or principally creditable toward a bachelor's
degree. A university is a postsecondary institution that typically
includes one or more graduate professional schools.
2year institution: An institution legally authorized
to offer and offering at least a 2year program of collegelevel
studies that terminates in an associate degree or is principally
creditable toward a baccalaureate.
See also degreegranting institutions and postsecondary
education.
Higher Education Price Index: A price index which measures
average changes in the prices of goods and services purchased
by colleges and universities through currentfund expenditures
and educational and general expenditures (excluding expenditures
for sponsored research and auxiliary enterprises).
Instructional staff: Fulltimeequivalent
number of positions, not the number of individuals occupying the
positions during the school year. In local schools, it includes
all public elementary and secondary (junior and senior high) dayschool
positions that are in the nature of teaching or the improvement
of the teachinglearning situation. This includes consultants
or supervisors of instruction, principals, teachers, guidance
personnel, librarians, psychological personnel, and other instructional
staff. This excludes administrative staff, attendance personnel,
clerical personnel, and junior college staff.
Master's degree: A degree awarded for
successful completion of a program generally requiring 1 or 2
years of fulltime collegelevel study beyond the bachelor's degree.
One type of master's degree, including the Master of Arts degree
(M.A.) and the Master of Science degree (M.S.), is awarded in
the liberal arts and sciences for advanced scholarship in a subject
field or discipline and demonstrated ability to perform scholarly
research. A second type of master's degree is awarded for the
completion of a professionally oriented program, for example,
an M.Ed. in education, an M.B.A. in business administration, an
M.F.A. in fine arts, an M.M. in music, an M.S.W. in social work,
or an M.P.A. in public administration. A third type of master's
degree is awarded in professional fields for study beyond the
firstprofessional degree, for example, the Master of Laws (LL.M.)
and Master of Science in various medical specializations.
Parttime enrollment: The number of students
enrolled in higher education courses with a total credit load
of less than 75 percent of the normal fulltime credit load.
Personal income: Current income received by persons from
all sources minus their personal contributions for social insurance.
Classified as ''persons'' are individuals (including owners of
unincorporated firms), nonprofit institutions serving individuals,
private trust funds, and private noninsured welfare funds. Personal
income includes transfers (payments not resulting from current
production) from government and business such as social security
benefits, military pensions, and so forth, but excludes transfers
among persons.
Postbaccalaureate enrollment: The number of graduate
and firstprofessional students working toward advanced degrees
and students enrolled in graduatelevel classes but not enrolled
in degree programs. See also graduate enrollment and firstprofessional
enrollment.
Postsecondary education: The provision of formal instructional
programs with a curriculum designed primarily for students who
have completed the requirements for a high school diploma or equivalent.
This includes programs of an academic, vocational, and continuing
professional education purpose, and excludes avocational and adult
basic education programs.
Private institution: A school or institution that is
controlled by an individual or agency other than a state, a subdivision
of a state, or the federal government; that is usually supported
primarily by other than public funds; and the operation of whose
program rests with other than publicly elected or appointed officials.
Property tax: The sum of money collected from a tax levied
against the value of property.
Public school or institution: A school or institution
controlled and operated by publicly elected or appointed officials
and generally deriving its primary support from public funds.
Pupilteacher ratio: The enrollment of pupils at a given
period of time, divided by the fulltimeequivalent number of
classroom teachers serving these pupils during the same period.
Revenue receipts: Additions to assets
that do not incur an obligation that must be met at some future
date and do not represent exchanges of property for money. Assets
must be available for expenditures.
Revenues: All funds received from external sources, net
of refunds and correcting transactions. Noncash transactions such
as receipt of services, commodities, or other receipts ''in kind''
are excluded, as are funds received from the issuance of debt,
liquidation of investments, or nonroutine sale of property.
Salary: The total amount regularly paid
or stipulated to be paid to an individual, before deductions,
for personal services rendered while on the payroll of a business
or organization.
School: A division of the school system consisting of
students in one or more grades or other identifiable groups and
organized to give instruction of a defined type. One school may
share a building with another school or one school may be housed
in several buildings.
Secondary instructional level: The general level of instruction
provided for pupils in secondary schools (generally covering grades
7 through 12 or 9 through 12) and any instruction of a comparable
nature and difficulty provided for adults and youth beyond the
age of compulsory school attendance.
Secondary school: A school including any span of grades
beginning with the next grade following an elementary or middle
school (usually 7, 8, or 9) and ending with or below grade 12.
Both junior high schools and senior high schools are included.
Senior high school: A secondary school offering the final
years of high school work necessary for graduation.
Student: An individual for whom instruction is provided
in an educational program under the jurisdiction of a school,
school system, or other educational institution. No distinction
is made between the terms ''student'' and ''pupil,'' although
''student'' may refer to one receiving instruction at any level
while ''pupil'' refers only to one attending school at the elementary
or secondary level. The term ''student'' is used to include individuals
at all instructional levels. A student may receive instruction
in a school facility or in another location, such as at home or
in a hospital. Instruction may be provided by direct studentteacher
interaction or by some other approved medium, such as television,
radio, telephone, or correspondence.
Tax base: The collective value of sales,
assets, and income components against which a tax is levied.
Total expenditure per pupil in average daily attendance:
Includes all expenditures allocable to per pupil costs divided
by average daily attendance. These allocable expenditures include
current expenditures for regular school programs, interest on
school debt, and capital outlay. Beginning in 198081, expenditures
for administration by state governments are excluded and expenditures
for other programs (summer schools, community colleges, and private
schools) are included.
Unclassified students: Students who are
not candidates for a degree or other formal award, although they
are taking higher education courses for credit in regular classes
with other students.
Undergraduate students: Students registered at an institution
of higher education who are working in a program leading to a
baccalaureate or other formal award below the baccalaureate, such
as an associate degree.
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Statistical Terms
Autocorrelation: Correlation of the error
terms from different observations of the same variable. Also called
serial correlation.
Degrees of freedom: The number of free
or linearly independent sample observations used in the calculation
of a statistic. In a time series regression with t time period
and k independent variables including a constant term, there would
be t minus k degrees of freedom.
Dependent variable: A mathematical variable whose value
is determined by that of one or more other variables in a function.
In regression analysis, when a random variable, y, is expressed
as a function of variables x_{1}, x_{2},...,
plus a stochastic term, then y is known as the ''dependent variable.''
Double exponential smoothing: A method that takes a single
smoothed average component of demand and smoothes it a second
time to allow for estimation of a trend effect.
DurbinWatson statistic: A statistic testing the independence
of errors in least squares regression against the alternative
of firstorder serial correlation. The statistic is a simple linear
transformation of the firstorder serial correlation of residuals
and, although its distribution is unknown, it is tested by bounding
statistics that follow R. L. Anderson's distribution.
Econometrics: The quantitative examination
of economic trends and relationships using statistical techniques,
and the development, examination, and refinement of those techniques.
Estimate: A numerical value obtained from a statistical
sample and assigned to a population parameter. The particular
value yielded by an estimator in a given set of circumstances
or the rule by which such particular values are calculated.
Estimating equation: An equation involving observed quantities
and an unknown that serves to estimate the latter.
Estimation: Estimation is concerned with inference about
the numerical value of unknown population values from incomplete
data, such as a sample. If a single figure is calculated for each
unknown parameter, the process is called point estimation. If
an interval is calculated within which the parameter is likely,
in some sense, to lie, the process is called interval estimation.
Exogenous variable: Variables for which the values are
determined outside the model but which influence the model.
Exponential smoothing: A method used in time series to
smooth or to predict a series. There are various forms, but all
are based on the supposition that more remote history has less
importance than more recent history.
Firstorder serial correlation: When
errors in one time period are correlated directly with errors
in the ensuing time period. Also called autocorrelation.
Forecast: An estimate of the future based on rational
study and analysis of available pertinent data, as opposed to
subjective prediction.
Forecasting: Assessing the magnitude which a quantity
will assume at some future point in time, as distinct from ''estimation,''
which attempts to assess the magnitude of an already existent
quantity.
Forecast horizon: The number of time periods into the
future which are forecasted. Forecasts for next year are said
to have a 1year forecast horizon.
Function: A mathematical correspondence that assigns
exactly one element of one set to each element of the same or
another set. A variable that depends on and varies with another.
Functional form: A mathematical statement of the relationship
among the variables in a model.
Independent variable: In regression
analysis, when a random variable, y, is expressed as a function
of variables x_{1}, x_{2},..., plus a stochastic
term, the x's are known as "independent variables."
Lag: An event occurring at time t + k
(k > 0) is said to lag behind an event occurring at time t, the
extent of the lag being k. An event occurring k time periods before
another may be regarded as having a negative lag.
Maximum likelihood estimation: A method
of estimating a parameter or parameters of a population by that
value (or values) that maximizes (or maximize) the likelihood
of a sample.
Mean absolute percentage error (MAPE): The average value
of the absolute value of errors expressed in percentage terms.
Model: A system of postulates, data, and inferences presented
as a mathematical description of a phenomenon such as an actual
system or process. The actual phenomenon is represented by the
model in order to explain it, to predict it, and to control it.
Ordinary least squares (OLS): The estimator
that minimizes the sum of squared residuals.
Parameter: A quantity that describes
a statistical population.
Projection: In relation to a time series, an estimate
of future values based on a current trend.
R^{2}: The coefficient of determination;
the square of the correlation coefficient between the dependent
variable and its OLS estimate.
R^{2}(also called the adjusted R^{2}):
The coefficient of determination adjusted for the degrees of freedom.
Regression analysis: A statistical technique for investigating
and modeling the relationship between variables.
Rho: A measure of the correlation coefficient between
errors in time period t and time period t minus 1.
Serial correlation: Correlation of the
error terms from different observations. Also called autocorrelation.
Standard error of estimate: An expression for the standard
deviation of the observed values about a regression line. An estimate
of the variation likely to be encountered in making predictions
from the regression equation.
Time series: A set of ordered observations
on a quantitative characteristic of an individual or collective
phenomenon taken at different points in time. Usually the observations
are successive and equally spaced in time.
Time series analysis: The branch of quantitative forecasting
in which data for one variable are examined for patterns of trend,
seasonality, and cycle.
Variable: A quantity that may assume
any one of a set of values.
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