Private Schools in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1993-94 / Profiles of Private Schools in America: 1993-94
Important features of private elementary and secondary schools in America, obtained from the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), are shown in a series of two-page graphic profiles for each of nine types of private schools and for all private schools in aggregate. The information in these graphic profiles is supplemented by additional information in the Tables Section of this report. Accompanying each graphic profile, characteristics of schools are described in text, based on information in the graphic profile and, when noted in the text, information in the Tables Section. Readers will note that the information presented in the graphic profiles and the Tables Section are complementary: different measures are shown (e.g., percentages instead of means), different breakdowns are included (e.g., by grade level served in the school or not), and in some cases the unit of analysis is different (e.g., schools instead of teachers).
In the graphic profiles, horizontal bar plots, in light gray, indicate the percentages (shown in parentheses) of schools, teachers, or principals in particular categories. For each percentage, a darker "shadow" bar provides context for interpretation by indicating the corresponding percentage for all private schools. (For the aggregate profile of all private schools, the "shadow" bars indicate corresponding percentages for all public schools.) In a few cases, a bar and percentage is omitted (and the percentage is replaced by "--"), because the SASS sample size for the particular category is not sufficiently large for a reliable estimate. A percentage equal to zero is represented by the absence of a light gray bar.
An explanation of each of the 16 components of the graphic profiles is presented below. The specific private school items on which the graphic profiles are based are displayed in Appendix B; and the graphic profile entries and their standard errors are displayed in tables C1 through C21 in Appendix C.
The regions do not have exactly the same populations35 percent of school-aged children are in the South, 25 percent in the Midwest, 22 percent in the West, and 18 percent in the Northeast. The number of private school students in each region is shown in table 2.1 in the Tables Section.
2. Average Enrollment (table C2): This graph shows the distribution of sizes of private schools, ranging from fewer than 50 students per school to more than 300. A further breakdown of enrollment data is shown in table 1.6 in the Tables Section.
3. Class Size (table C3): This graph shows the distribution of teachers reports of the sizes of the classes they teach, ranging from fewer than 15 to more than 25. Average class sizes and student/teacher ratios are shown in table 1.7 in the Tables Section.
4. Elementary School Students Receiving Special Services (table C4): This graph shows the average percentage of elementary school students receiving each of four services. The average includes both schools that offer the service and schools that do not. Percentages of all schools that offer these and other services (combined across grade levels) and the percentages of students receiving the services at schools that offer them are shown in table 1.9 in the Tables Section.
5. Minority Student Percentage (table C5): This graph shows the percentages of schools with different concentrations of minority students: either no minority students, up to 10 percent, 10 percent to 50 percent, or 50 percent or more. For one type of school, an overall average 20 percent minority enrollment may mean that all schools have about 20 percent minority enrollment, while for another type of school, it may mean that 20 percent of the schools have large minority concentrations while most of the rest have no minority students. This graph distiguishes between these possibilities. Further break-downs are shown in tables 2.5 and 2.6 in the Tables Section.
6. Grade Level Served (table C6): In the second column of the first page of each two-page profile, the percentages of schools that are elementary only, secondary only, or combine both elementary and secondary grades are shown. Specifically, elementary schools offer some grade lower than 7 and no grade higher than 8, secondary schools offer no grade lower than 7, and combined schools offer both some grade lower than 7 and some grade higher than 8. Further breakdowns showing prekindergartens, kindergartens, middle schools, and ungraded schools are shown in table 1.4 in the Tables Section.
7. Tuition Amounts at Elementary and Other Schools (tables C7 and C8): This graph shows, separately for elementary schools and schools that serve higher grades, percentages of schools that have tuitions in relatively low, medium, and high ranges. For elementary schools, the cutpoints for these ranges are $1,500 and $3,500; and for schools serving secondary students (secondary or combined schools), the cutpoints are $3,000 and $8,000. Further breakdowns of average tuitions are shown in table 1.5 in the Tables Section.
8. Secondary School Resources and Graduation Requirements (tables C9 and C10): These graphs show the percentages of schools serving secondary students that provide a library and remedial reading classes and the percentages of schools offering twelfth grade whose graduation requirements include at least 3 years of science, at least 1 year of foreign language instruction, and some community service. Further breakdowns of programs, services, and requirements for graduation are included in tables 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, and 4.6 in the Tables Section.
9. Minority Teacher Percentage (table C11): This graph shows the percentages of schools with different concentrations (percentages) of minority teachers: either no minority teachers, up to 10 percent, 10 percent to 50 percent, or 50 percent or more. Further breakdowns of staff gender and ethnicity are shown in tables 3.6 and 3.10 in the Tables Section.
10. Teachers Ratings of Moderate or Serious Problems (table C12): This graph shows the percentage of teachers who rated each of several categories of problems as moderate or severe, as opposed to minor or not a problem. For this graph, pairs of items that had previously been shown to be highly correlated were averaged to provide broader estimates. Details are presented in Appendix B. Further breakdowns of teacher ratings are shown in table 4.4 in the Tables Section, and breakdowns of similar principals ratings are shown in table 4.3.
11. Teacher Influence on School Policy and Control Over Classroom Practice (table C13): This graph shows the percentage of teachers who indicated that they had substantial influence on two school policies (a rating of 4 or 5 on a scale from 0, no influence, to 5, a great deal of influence), and the percentage of teachers who indicated that they had substantial control over their classroom practices (a rating of 4 or 5 on a scale from 0, no control, to 5, complete control). Further breakdowns, as well as other influence and control factors, are shown in table 3.11 in the Tables Section.
12. Satisfaction with Teaching (table C14): This graph shows the percentage of teachers who agreed or strongly agreed with three statements about job satisfaction and who indicated that they probably or certainly would become teachers if they were to start over. Further breakdowns of satisfaction responses are shown in tables 3.12 and 4.4 in the Tables Section.
13. Education Attainment (tables C15 and C16): This graph shows the percentages of principals and teachers who indicated that their highest degree was bachelors, masters, or doctorate (or "first professional degree"). Further breakdowns of education attainment are shown in tables 3.4 and 3.9 in the Tables Section.
14. Years of Experience (tables C17 and C18): This graph shows the percentages of principals and teachers with various amounts of experience. For principals, experience as both teacher and principal are included. Part-time years are counted as half-time. Further breakdowns of data on principals experience are shown in table 3.7.
15. Teacher Certification (table C19): This graph shows the percentage of teachers with certification by either the state or a private school organization. Further breakdowns of teacher certification are shown in table 3.3 in the Tables Section.
16. Salary Levels (tables C20 and C21): This graph shows the percentages of principals and teachers with annual base salaries of less than $20,000, between $20,000 and $30,000, between $30,000 and $40,000, and greater than $40,000. Further breakdowns of salary information are shown in tables 3.7 and 3.12 in the Tables Section.
The following pages contain first a single profile for all private schools in aggregate, followed by nine profiles for the nine NCES-defined categories of private schools: Catholic schools, divided into three categories: parochial, diocesan, and private order; other religiously oriented schools, divided into three categories: conservative Christian, other affiliated, and other unaffiliated; and nonsectarian schools, also divided into three categories: regular, special emphasis, and special education. In a later section, individual profiles for each of 19 affiliations, or groups of affiliations, are included.
The picture of private schools in America has changed dramatically during the 20th century. When the dates of founding of private schools are compared across decades, it can be seen that although 11 percent of currently operating schools are more than 90 years old, relatively few currently operating private schools were founded between 1904 and 1944 (table 1.3). About two-thirds of these schools were established after the mid-1950s.
To their principals, private schools have many important goals, which vary among types of private schools (tables 4.1 and 4.2). Based on responses in 1993- 94, 42 percent of principals rated religious development as most important, 17 percent rated academic excellence as most important, 18 percent rated literacy skills as most important, and 10 percent rated personal growth and self-esteem as most important.
Private schools are typically much smaller than public schools: only 20 percent of private schools had enrollments of more than 300 students, compared to 71 percent of public schools; and a quarter had enrollment of less than 50 students, compared to only 3 percent of public schools. Unlike schools in public school systems, few private schools limit their grade spans to the middle grades, and many enroll students in both elementary and secondary grades in the same school. About 30 percent of private schools combined elementary and secondary grades, compared to 4 percent of public schools; and while 56 percent of public schools with seventh graders were middle schools, very few separate private schools served only the middle grades (table 1.4).
Nearly all private schools (95 percent) were coeducational. Boys and girls were equally represented in most private schools, with a few exceptions (for example, military and special education private schools had male enrollments of 71 and 72 percent, respectively) (table 2.4). In public schools, about 33 percent of the student population were members of minority groups; in private schools, about 22 percent were (table 2.5). Although many private schools served a diverse student body of minorities, about one in five had no minority students. Nearly all private schools charged tuition: in 1993-94, it averaged $2,200 in elementary schools, $5,500 in secondary schools, and $4,200 in combined-level private schools (table 1.5).
School resources and programs can be affected by school size, and two types of differences between public and private schools can be traced to differences in school size. First, in comparison to public schools, private schools had smaller class sizes, with one-quarter having fewer than 15 students per class. Similarly, the average student/teacher ratio for private schools was 15:1, compared to 17:1 for public schools (table 1.7). As McLaughlin, O'Donnell, and Ries (1995) showed, these differences disappear when one compares schools with the same sizesmaller schools have smaller student/teacher ratios, and more private schools are smaller.
Second, fewer private schools served sufficient numbers of students to need or be able to provide various resources or services.\1 At the elementary level, for example, fewer private school students received services for Title I (4 percent), bilingual (1 percent), and special education (3 percent), but more private school students received day care services (11 percent, compared to only 4 percent in public schools). At both the elementary and secondary levels, the average FTE librarians were fewer at private schools (0.5, compared to 1.2, in elementary schools; and 1.1, compared to 1.7, in secondary schools).
The education levels of private school teachers on average were somewhat lower than those of public school teachers: 7 percent of teachers in private schools did not have a bachelors degree, compared to fewer than 1 percent of public school teachers. The related experience of the two teacher groups was similar, although many more of the most experienced teachers were in public schools: 21 percent of private school teachers had 20 or more years teaching experience, compared to 35 percent of public school teachers. Seventy-one percent of private school teachers, compared to virtually all public school teachers, held state certifications. Teachers at private schools were paid substantially less on average: about half earned less than $20,000, compared to 4 percent of public, while fewer of them (5 percent) earned $40,000 or more, compared to 25 percent of public. Although many minority members are hired as private school teachers, about 65 percent of private schools had no minority teachers, compared to 42 percent of public schools.
Principals qualifications, in terms of education level but not related experience, were somewhat lower in private schools than in public schools. In private schools, 66 percent of principals had advanced degrees, compared to more than 98 percent of public school principals. Most principals in private schools were also paid substantially less: about 31 percent earned less than $20,000, and fewer of them (24 percent) earned $40,000 or more. The proportion of female principals was greater in private schools than in public schools (54 percent and 34 percent, respectively).
Although teachers in private schools were less satisfied with their salaries, more of them were satisfied with their class sizes, staff cooperation, and career choice than teachers in public schools were. Generally, private school teachers felt they had more control over school discipline, school curriculum, the choice of textbooks, and class content than did public school teachers. Although private schools varied among themselves on many factors, these differences in perceptions of teacher influence were represented in nearly all types of private schools (table 3.11).
Unlike all but a few public schools, nearly half of all elementary private schools (47 percent) and most secondary or combined level private schools (72 percent) used at least one of the following requirements: an admission or achievement test, an interview, the students academic record, special needs, special aptitudes, or recommendations. For example, about 22 percent of elementary private schools and 32 percent of secondary private schools had an admissions test (table 2.3a )and 2.3b. When asked to identify problems as moderate or serious in their schools, fewer private school teachers than public school teachers reported school attendance, robbery, alcohol abuse, physical conflict, apathy, poverty and racial tension, and students dropping out.
More private schools required 3 years of science courses (48 percent) and 1 year of foreign language education (58 percent) than did public schools. Nearly one-third of private schools had some requirement for community service before graduation in 1993-94, compared to 3 percent of public schools. The rates of graduation were higher in private schools (98 percent) than in public schools (93 percent), and the rates for college application were higher in private schools: 88 percent, compared to 57 percent in public schools (table 4.5).
Statistical profiles in this section have been organized by a typology of private schools developed by NCES (McMillen & Benson 1992). That typology consists of three major categories of schools, and three subcategories of schools within each major category. The largest set of private schools in the United States are those affiliated with the Catholic Church. The first three profiles in the typology are, therefore, for three subcategories of Catholic schools: parochial, diocesan, and private order, grouped by governance. The governance of private schools is tied to differences in curriculum, program emphasis, and sources of revenue. (A profile of all Catholic schools, combined, is included in the later section of profiles by affiliation.).
The second group of three profiles is for religiously-orented schools other than Catholic schools. These have been categorized by NCES as conservative Christian schools, which are affiliated with conservative Christian associations, as schools with affiliations to other religious denominations, and as religiously oriented schools that are not affiliated with either a national denomination or a conservative Christian association. (Profiles of schools within twelve specific religious affiliations: Episcopal, Friends, Seventh-Day Adventists, two conservative asociations, three Jewish subcategories, and four Lutheran subcategories; are included in the later section of profiles by affiliation.)
The third group of three profiles is for nonsectarian schools. These have been categorized as either regular or serving a special purpose, either special education for children with disabilities or a special emphasis, such as arts, vocational, or alternative schools. (Profiles of schools with four nonsectarian affiliations: Montessori schools, schools for exceptional children, members of the National Association of Independent Schools, and military schools; are included in the later section of profiles by affiliation.)
Schools affiliated with the National Independent Private School Association (NIPSA), which became a new stratum in this survey in 1993-94, were grouped with other (uncategorized) private schools in this report. Based on the Schools and Staffing Survey, NIPSA affiliates numbered 380 schools, enrolling 104,660 students and employing 8,714 teachers in 1993-94. About half of the NIPSA schools were solely elementary, and about half served secondary students. The largest percentages of these schools were in the Midwest (43 percent) and were in large or midsize central cities (53 percent). Schools affiliated with NIPSA will be shown in a separate profile in future editions of the SASS Statistical Profiles of Private Schools.
1/School size is related to service provision. Public schools serving elementary grades that were small (150 students) were less likely than other public schools to offer each of these services. The same was true for private schools, with the exception of bilingual edu-cation.