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Public and Private School Principle in the United States: A Statistical Profile, 1987-88 to 1993-94
Table B13.-Standard errors for Table A13:  Percentage of public and private school 
           principals participating in training or development programs, by region, 
           community type, school level, sex, and race-ethnicity:  1987-88, 1990-91, 
           and 1993-94
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Training or development program
                                   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Program for               Training in evaluation               Training in                   Administrative
                                         aspiring principals              and supervision              management techniques               internship
                                   -----------------------------   -----------------------------   -----------------------------   -------------------------   
Principal/school characteristics    1987-88   1990-91   1993-94     1987-88   1990-91   1993-94     1987-88   1990-91   1993-94     1987-88 1990-91 1993-94
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PUBLIC
 Total                               (a)       0.69      0.56        0.36      0.44      0.46        0.57      0.60      0.57         0.58    0.74    0.74
 Sex
  Male                               (a)       0.81      0.74        0.42      0.47      0.60        0.62      0.59      0.66         0.62    0.85     0.9
  Female                             (a)       1.55      1.15        0.80      1.18      0.87        1.12      1.29      1.15         1.16    1.12    1.15
 Race-ethnicity
  American Indian/Alaska Native      (a)       7.06      5.52        3.30      3.24      4.75        5.90      6.35      3.03         6.73     6.7    5.77
  Asian/Pacific Islander             (a)       8.02      7.38        4.56      2.32      2.08        4.48      5.16      7.74         7.59    9.66    9.08
  Black non-Hispanic                 (a)       2.37      2.16        1.29      1.47      1.56        1.46      1.89      1.94         2.11    2.64    2.31
  White non-Hispanic                 (a)       0.72      0.67        0.38      0.50      0.54        0.60      0.62      0.62         0.55    0.74    0.85
  Hispanic                           (a)       4.28      4.31        2.07      2.35      2.11        3.77      3.31      3.56         4.14    4.28    4.21
 Total minority                      (a)       2.25      1.96        0.97      1.12      1.19        1.31      1.46      1.47         1.91    1.92    2.05
 Community type
  Central city                       (a)       1.68      1.43        0.82      0.95      0.79        1.14      1.21      1.10         1.42    1.52    1.48
  Urban fringe/large town            (a)       1.54      1.25        0.65      1.24      0.94        1.00      1.80      1.18         0.93    1.54    1.15
  Rural/small town                   (a)       1.01      0.80        0.60      0.68      0.71        0.86      0.86      0.83         0.83     1.1    1.04
 School level
  Elementary                         (a)       0.92      0.72        0.45      0.61      0.57        0.77      0.81      0.79         0.74    0.94       1
  Secondary                          (a)       1.01      0.86        0.62      0.60      0.72        0.87      0.86      0.76         0.91    1.01     0.8
  Combined                           (a)       1.94      2.99        1.60      1.15      1.26        1.75      1.66      1.85         1.96    2.83    3.02
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------         
See footnotes at end of tables.
Table B13.-Standard errors for Table A13:  Percentage of public and private school 
           principals participating in training or development programs, by region, 
           community type, school level, sex, and race-ethnicity:  1987-88, 1990-91, 
           and 1993-94(continued)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                                                                 Training or development program
                                   -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
                                            Program for               Training in evaluation               Training in                   Administrative
                                         aspiring principals              and supervision              management techniques               internship
                                   -----------------------------   -----------------------------   -----------------------------   -------------------------   
Principal/school characteristics    1987-88   1990-91   1993-94     1987-88   1990-91   1993-94     1987-88   1990-91   1993-94     1987-88 1990-91 1993-94
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PRIVATE
 Total                               (a)       1.29      1.19        1.51      1.48      1.17        1.58      1.38      0.98         1.13    1.09    1.02
 Sex
  Male                               (a)       1.92      1.80        2.18      2.56      1.48        1.91      2.40      1.51         1.38    1.38    1.25
  Female                             (a)       1.49      1.57        1.88      1.65      1.70        2.44      1.95      1.38          1.7    1.49    1.41
 Race-ethnicity
  American Indian/Alaska Native      (a)      19.58     15.24       20.96     19.39     13.31       22.38     20.68     13.31        12.79   20.63   17.91
  Asian/Pacific Islander             (a)      10.66     15.00       10.65     16.45     12.82        9.33     16.59     10.45        13.79       0   12.96
  Black non-Hispanic                 (a)       9.21      5.65        7.16      8.34      5.82        7.56      9.56      4.73         6.06    9.46    5.69
  White non-Hispanic                 (a)       1.27      1.27        1.45      1.50      1.20        1.66      1.42      1.13         1.19     1.1       1
  Hispanic                           (a)       6.78      8.21       14.54      5.67      7.61        9.80      6.56      5.45         8.45    7.93    6.98
 Total minority                      (a)       5.19      4.33        7.63      4.89      4.37        4.59      5.83      3.58         4.52    5.36    4.36
 Community type
  Central city                       (a)       1.74      1.48        1.94      1.80      1.56        2.43      2.10      1.52         1.59    1.67    1.72
  Urban fringe/large town            (a)       1.95      2.17        1.93      1.99      2.23        2.01      1.90      2.15          2.1    1.71     1.7
  Rural/small town                   (a)       2.63      2.21        3.02      3.69      2.62        3.52      3.40      2.60         2.56    2.03    1.82
 School level
  Elementary                         (a)       1.46      1.64        1.70      1.75      1.79        1.96      1.88      1.60         1.58    1.48    1.24
  Secondary                          (a)       2.88      2.78        5.36      3.68      2.23        4.19      3.55      2.26         3.98    2.25    1.93
  Combined                           (a)       2.38      2.55        3.42      3.53      2.27        2.37     2.48/      2.77         1.91    2.16    1.43
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------           
(a) Item not included on SASS instrument that year.
SOURCE:  U.S. Department of Education, , Schools and Staffing Survey: 1987-88 (School Administrator and 
Public and Private School Questionnaires), 1990-91 (Public and Private School Administrator and School Questionnaires), and 1993-94 
(Public and Private School Principal and School Questionnaires).

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