Education in States and Nations: 1991

(ESN) Indicator 20: Time in formal instruction

Time spent in instruction can have a major influence on student achievement, since it reflects the access students have to learning opportunities. It is important to keep in mind, however, that the quality as well as the quantity of classroom instruction determines the educational worth of the time students spent in formal instruction. Time in formal instruction is measured here by the average hours of instruction per day, the average days of instruction per year, and the average hours of instruction per year at schools with an 8th grade in the United States and at lower secondary schools in other countries. Formal instruction is that interaction that takes place, generally in a classroom, between a teacher and a set group of students on a regularly scheduled basis.



Table 19b Processes and Institutions Indicators Figure 20a