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Table 419  Total public direct expenditures on education as a percentage of gross national product: 1985 to 1995

____________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                  |                             |    Primary and secondary    |
                  |      All institutions\1\    |       institutions          |Higher education institutions
     Country      |_____________________________|_____________________________|_____________________________
                  |1985 |1990 |1993 |1994 |1995 |1985 |1990 |1993 |1994 |1995 |1985 |1990 |1993 |1994 |1995
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____
        1         |  2  |  3  |  4  |  5  |  6  |  7  |  8  |  9  | 10  | 11  | 12  | 13  | 14  | 15  | 16
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____
Average for year .| 5.3 | 4.9 | 5.1 | 5.0 | 4.9 | 3.7 | 3.5 | 3.6 | 3.5 | 3.4 | 1.1 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.9
Average for coun- |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  tries reporting |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  data for all    |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
  years ..........| 5.3 | 5.3 | 5.5 | 5.4 | 5.3 | 3.7 | 3.7 | 3.7 | 3.7 | 3.6 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.1
                  |_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____
Australia ........| 5.4 | 4.3 | 4.7 | 4.4 | 4.5 | 3.5 | 3.2 | 3.5 | 3.2 | 3.2 | 1.7 | 1.0 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.2
Austria ..........| 5.6 | 5.2 | 5.3 | --- | 5.3 | 3.7 | 3.6 | 3.5 | --- | 3.8 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 1.0 | --- | 0.9
Belgium ..........| 6.3 | 4.8 | 5.5 | 5.5 | 5.0 | 4.0 | 3.4 | 3.6 | 3.8 | 3.4 | 1.0 | 0.8 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.9
Canada ...........| 6.1 | 5.4 | 6.2 | 6.0 | 5.8 | 4.1 | 3.7 | 4.2 | 4.2 | 4.0 | 2.0 | 1.5 | 1.7 | 1.6 | 1.5
Czech Republic ...| --- | --- | --- | --- | 4.8 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 3.4 | --- | --- | 0.7 | 0.8 | 0.7
                  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
Denmark ..........| 6.2 | 6.2 | 6.7 | 6.5 | 6.5 | 4.7 | 4.4 | 4.4 | 4.3 | 4.2 | 1.2 | 1.3 | 1.3 | 1.4 | 1.3
Finland ..........| 5.8 | 6.4 | 7.3 | 6.6 | 6.6 | --- | 4.3 | 4.7 | 4.4 | 4.2 | --- | 1.2 | 1.8 | 1.5 | 1.7
France ...........| --- | 5.1 | 5.6 | 5.6 | 5.8 | --- | 3.7 | 4.0 | 4.0 | 4.1 | --- | 0.8 | 0.9 | 0.9 | 1.0
Germany\2\ .......| 4.6 | --- | 4.5 | 4.5 | 4.5 | 2.8 | --- | 3.0 | 2.9 | 2.9 | 1.0 | --- | 0.9 | 0.9 | 1.0
Greece ...........| --- | --- | 2.7 | 3.1 | 3.7 | --- | --- | 2.0 | 2.4 | 2.8 | --- | --- | 0.7 | 0.7 | 0.8
                  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
Hungary ..........| --- | 5.0 | 5.9 | 5.7 | 4.9 | --- | 3.5 | 4.1 | 3.9 | 3.3 | --- | 0.8 | 0.9 | 0.9 | 0.8
Iceland ..........| --- | 4.3 | 4.6 | 4.5 | 4.5 | --- | 3.3 | 3.5 | 3.4 | 3.4 | --- | 0.6 | 0.7 | 0.7 | 0.7
Ireland ..........| 5.6 | 4.7 | 5.1 | 5.1 | 4.7 | 4.0 | 3.3 | 3.6 | 3.6 | 3.3 | 0.9 | 0.9 | 1.0 | 1.0 | 0.9
Italy ............| 4.7 | 5.8 | 5.0 | 4.6 | 4.5 | 3.2 | 4.1 | 3.5 | 3.3 | 3.2 | 0.6 | 1.0 | 0.8 | 0.7 | 0.7
Japan ............| --- | 3.6 | 3.6 | 3.8 | 3.6 | --- | 2.9 | 2.9 | 2.9 | 2.8 | --- | 0.4 | 0.4 | 0.5 | 0.4
                  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
Korea ............| --- | --- | 3.7 | 3.6 | 3.6 | --- | --- | 3.0 | 2.9 | 3.0 | --- | --- | 0.3 | 0.3 | 0.3
Luxembourg .......| --- | --- | --- | --- | 4.3 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 4.2 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 0.1
Mexico ...........| --- | 3.2 | 3.7 | 4.5 | 4.6 | --- | 2.2 | 2.7 | 3.2 | 3.4 | --- | 0.7 | 0.6 | 0.9 | 0.8
Netherlands ......| 6.2 | 5.7 | 4.6 | 4.5 | 4.6 | 4.1 | 3.6 | 3.0 | 3.0 | 3.0 | 1.5 | 1.6 | 1.2 | 1.2 | 1.1
New Zealand ......| --- | 5.5 | 5.8 | 5.4 | 5.3 | --- | 3.9 | 4.2 | 3.9 | 3.8 | --- | 1.2 | 1.2 | 1.1 | 1.1
                  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
Norway ...........| 5.1 | 6.2 | 6.8 | 6.9 | 6.8 | 4.0 | 4.1 | 4.0 | 4.1 | 4.1 | 0.7 | 1.1 | 1.3 | 1.4 | 1.5
Poland ...........| --- | --- | --- | --- | 5.2 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 3.3 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 0.8
Portugal .........| --- | --- | 5.4 | 5.3 | 5.4 | --- | --- | 3.9 | 3.9 | 4.1 | --- | --- | 0.8 | 0.8 | 1.0
Russia ...........| --- | --- | --- | --- | 3.4 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 1.9 | --- | --- | --- | --- | 0.7
Spain ............| 3.6 | 4.2 | 4.5 | 4.8 | 4.8 | 2.9 | 3.2 | 3.3 | 3.5 | 3.5 | 0.4 | 0.7 | 0.8 | 0.8 | 0.8
                  |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
Sweden ...........| --- | 5.3 | 6.6 | 6.6 | 6.6 | --- | 4.4 | 4.6 | 4.5 | 4.4 | --- | 1.0 | 1.4 | 1.5 | 1.6
Switzerland ......| 4.9 | 5.0 | 5.5 | 5.5 | 5.5 | 4.0 | 3.7 | 4.1 | 4.1 | 4.1 | 0.9 | 1.0 | 1.1 | 1.1 | 1.1
Turkey ...........| --- | 3.2 | 3.3 | 3.3 | 2.2 | --- | 2.3 | 2.4 | 2.1 | 1.4 | --- | 0.9 | 0.8 | 1.2 | 0.8
United Kingdom ...| 4.9 | 4.3 | 4.6 | 4.6 | 4.6 | 3.1 | 3.5 | 3.8 | 3.8 | 3.8 | 1.0 | 0.7 | 0.7 | 0.7 | 0.7
United States ....| 4.7 | 5.3 | 5.0 | 4.8 | 5.0 | 3.2 | 3.8 | 3.7 | 3.4 | 3.5 | 1.3 | 1.4 | 1.2 | 1.1 | 1.1
__________________|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____|_____

\1\Includes preprimary and other expenditures not classified by level.
\2\Data for 1985 refer to West Germany (Federal Republic of Germany before unification). NOTE.
--Direct public expenditure on educational services includes both amounts spent directly by governments to hire educational personnel and to procure other resources, and amounts provided by governments to public or private institutions. Figures for 1985 also include transfers and payments to private entities, and thus are not strictly comparable with later figures.

SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Education Database; and Annual National Accounts, vol.1, 1997. (This table was prepared October 1999.)

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