Digest of Education Statistics
1998 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest

Table 413. -  Total public direct expenditures for education as a percentage of gross domestic product, by level of education: Selected countries, 1985 to 1994
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               |        All levels\1\                  |    Primary education        |      Secondary education    |       Higher education
    Country    |_______________________________________|_____________________________|_____________________________|_______________________________
               |1985|1988|1989|1990|1991|1992|1993|1994|1985|1990|1991|1992|1993|1994|1985|1990|1991|1992|1993|1994|1985|1990 |1991 |1992|1993|1994
_______________|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|_____|_____|____|____|____
       1       | 2  | 3  | 4  | 5  | 6  | 7  | 8  |  9 | 10 | 11 | 12 | 13 | 14 | 15 | 16 | 17 | 18 | 19 | 20 | 21 | 22 |  23 |  24 | 25 | 26 | 27
_______________|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|_____|_____|____|____|____
Australia .....|5.4 |4.8 |--- |--- |4.4 |4.6 |4.7 |4.4 |1.6 |--- |--- |--- |1.5 |1.4 |1.9 |--- |2.4 |2.8 |2.0 |1.8 |1.7 |---  | 1.9 |1.5 |1.1 |1.1
Austria .......|5.6 |5.5 |5.3 |5.2 |5.3 |5.6 |5.3 |--- |1.0 |0.9 |1.0 |1.0 |1.0 |--- |2.7 |2.5 |2.5 |2.6 |2.5 |--- |1.0 | 1.0 | 1.1 |1.1 |1.0 |---
Belgium .......|6.3 |5.5 |5.6 |5.1 |5.3 |5.3 |5.5 |5.5 |1.1 |0.9 |0.9 |1.0 |1.1 |1.2 |2.9 |2.2 |2.3 |2.2 |2.5 |2.6 |1.0 | 0.8 | 0.9 |0.6 |1.0 |1.0
Denmark .......|6.2 |6.4 |6.4 |6.2 |6.1 |6.1 |6.7 |6.5 |1.8 |1.7 |--- |1.4 |1.5 |1.5 |2.9 |2.7 |--- |2.6 |2.9 |2.8 |1.2 | 1.3 | 1.3 |1.3 |1.3 |1.4
France ........|--- |--- |5.0 |5.0 |5.2 |5.4 |5.6 |5.6 |--- |1.0 |1.0 |1.0 |1.1 |1.1 |--- |2.4 |2.5 |2.7 |2.9 |2.9 |--- | 0.7 | 0.8 |0.8 |0.9 |0.9
               |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |     |     |    |    |
Germany\2\ ....|4.6 |4.3 |--- |--- |--- |--- |4.5 |4.5 |0.6 |--- |--- |--- |0.7 |0.8 |2.2 |--- |--- |--- |2.3 |2.1 |1.0 |---  |---  |--- |0.9 |0.9
Ireland .......|5.6 |5.4 |5.0 |4.9 |5.1 |5.0 |5.1 |5.1 |1.6 |1.4 |1.5 |1.4 |1.4 |1.4 |2.3 |2.0 |2.1 |2.0 |2.1 |2.2 |0.9 | 1.0 | 1.0 |1.0 |1.0 |1.0
Italy .........|4.7 |4.9 |5.0 |5.2 |--- |5.0 |5.0 |4.6 |1.2 |1.1 |--- |1.1 |1.1 |1.1 |2.1 |2.2 |--- |2.3 |2.4 |2.2 |0.6 | 1.0 |---  |0.8 |0.8 |0.7
Japan  ........|--- |3.6 |3.5 |3.4 |3.4 |3.5 |3.6 |3.8 |--- |--- |--- |1.3 |1.4 |1.4 |--- |--- |--- |1.4 |1.5 |1.6 |--- |---  |---  |0.3 |0.4 |0.5
Luxembourg ....|--- |5.2 |5.0 |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |---  |---  |--- |--- |---
               |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |     |     |    |    |
Netherlands ...|6.2 |6.1 |5.7 |5.7 |--- |4.6 |4.6 |4.5 |1.6 |1.3 |--- |1.1 |1.2 |1.2 |2.5 |2.2 |--- |1.8 |1.8 |1.8 |1.5 | 1.6 | --- |1.2 |1.2 |1.2
New Zealand ...|--- |4.8 |5.9 |6.2 |6.3 |5.9 |5.8 |5.4 |--- |1.6 |1.5 |1.3 |1.6 |1.5 |--- |1.5 |1.4 |1.9 |2.6 |2.4 |--- | 2.2 | 1.8 |1.4 |1.2 |1.1
Norway ........|5.1 |5.9 |5.9 |5.9 |6.1 |6.8 |6.8 |6.9 |1.6 |1.5 |1.5 |1.6 |1.5 |2.5 |2.5 |2.4 |2.5 |2.9 |2.4 |1.6 |0.7 | 1.1 | 1.2 |1.3 |1.3 |1.4
Portugal ......|--- |4.0 |4.0 |--- |4.9 |--- |5.4 |5.3 |--- |--- |2.0 |--- |2.0 |1.8 |--- |--- |1.8 |--- |1.9 |2.1 |--- |---  | 0.8 |--- |0.8 |0.8
Spain .........|3.6 |3.9 |4.1 |4.3 |4.4 |4.4 |4.5 |4.8 |1.1 |1.0 |1.0 |1.0 |1.0 |1.0 |1.8 |2.3 |2.3 |2.3 |2.4 |2.5 |0.4 | 0.7 | 0.8 |0.8 |0.8 |0.8
               |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |    |     |     |    |    |
Sweden ........|--- |5.5 |5.2 |5.3 |5.9 |6.5 |6.6 |6.6 |--- |1.9 |2.1 |1.9 |2.0 |2.0 |--- |2.3 |2.6 |2.4 |2.6 |2.5 |--- | 1.0 | 1.1 |1.0 |1.4 |1.5
Switzerland ...|4.9 |5.0 |--- |--- |5.4 |5.2 |5.5 |5.5 |2.7 |--- |1.4 |1.2 |1.6 |1.6 |1.3 |--- |2.3 |2.6 |2.5 |2.5 |0.9 |---  | 1.2 |1.1 |1.1 |1.1
Turkey ........|--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |--- |3.3 |3.3 |--- |--- |--- |--- |1.7 |1.4 |--- |--- |--- |--- |0.8 |0.7 |--- |---  |---  |--- |0.8 |1.2
United Kingdom |4.9 |4.5 |4.4 |4.7 |4.8 |4.7 |4.6 |4.6 |1.1 |1.2 |1.3 |1.5 |1.6 |1.6 |2.0 |2.1 |2.1 |2.3 |2.3 |2.2 |1.0 | 0.9 | 0.9 |0.8 |0.7 |0.7
United States .|4.7 |4.9 |4.8 |5.3 |5.5 |5.0 |5.0 |4.8 |1.4 |1.7 |1.8 |1.8 |1.8 |1.6 |1.8 |1.9 |1.9 |1.8 |1.9 |--- |1.3 | 1.4 | 1.5 |1.2 |1.2 |1.1
_______________|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|____|_____|_____|____|____|____

\1\Includes primary, secondary, and higher education and other expenditures not classified by level of education.
\2\Data prior to 1991 are for the former West Germany.
---Data not available.

SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, unpublished data. (This table was prepared July 1998.)


1998 Tables and Figures All Years of Tables and Figures Most Recent Full Issue of the Digest