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Table 602.60. Average mathematics literacy scores of 15-year-old students and percentage attaining mathematics literacy proficiency levels, by country or other education system: 2012
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system Average mathematics literacy score Percentage attaining mathematics literacy proficiency levels1
Below level 2 At level 2 At level 3 At level 4 At or above level 5
Total below level 2 Below
level 1
At level 1 Total
at or above level 5
At level 5 At level 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
OECD average2 494   (0.5) 23.0   (0.17) 8.0   (0.12) 15.0   (0.13) 22.5   (0.15) 23.7   (0.15) 18.1   (0.14) 12.7   (0.14) 9.3   (0.11) 3.3   (0.08)
                                                             
Australia 504   (1.6) 19.7   (0.60) 6.1   (0.35) 13.5   (0.57) 21.9   (0.76) 24.6   (0.65) 19.0   (0.50) 14.8   (0.64) 10.5   (0.43) 4.3   (0.36)
Austria 506   (2.7) 18.7   (0.96) 5.7   (0.59) 13.0   (0.74) 21.9   (0.87) 24.2   (0.84) 21.0   (0.90) 14.3   (0.95) 11.0   (0.75) 3.3   (0.41)
Belgium 515   (2.1) 19.0   (0.82) 7.0   (0.58) 12.0   (0.52) 18.4   (0.58) 22.4   (0.70) 20.6   (0.63) 19.5   (0.76) 13.4   (0.73) 6.1   (0.43)
Canada 518   (1.8) 13.8   (0.55) 3.6   (0.29) 10.2   (0.45) 21.0   (0.64) 26.4   (0.63) 22.4   (0.49) 16.4   (0.64) 12.1   (0.47) 4.3   (0.29)
Chile 423   (3.1) 51.5   (1.67) 22.0   (1.35) 29.5   (1.01) 25.3   (1.00) 15.4   (0.78) 6.2   (0.60) 1.6   (0.22) 1.5   (0.21) 0.1 ! (0.04)
                                                             
Czech Republic 499   (2.9) 21.0   (1.20) 6.8   (0.76) 14.2   (0.97) 21.7   (0.83) 24.8   (1.07) 19.7   (0.90) 12.9   (0.82) 9.6   (0.66) 3.2   (0.31)
Denmark 500   (2.3) 16.8   (0.98) 4.4   (0.49) 12.5   (0.70) 24.4   (0.97) 29.0   (1.03) 19.8   (0.69) 10.0   (0.66) 8.3   (0.57) 1.7   (0.32)
Estonia 521   (2.0) 10.5   (0.63) 2.0   (0.26) 8.6   (0.57) 22.0   (0.84) 29.4   (0.79) 23.4   (0.91) 14.6   (0.76) 11.0   (0.67) 3.6   (0.37)
Finland 519   (1.9) 12.3   (0.67) 3.3   (0.39) 8.9   (0.49) 20.5   (0.66) 28.8   (0.78) 23.2   (0.78) 15.3   (0.74) 11.7   (0.60) 3.5   (0.30)
France 495   (2.5) 22.4   (0.87) 8.7   (0.72) 13.6   (0.76) 22.1   (0.95) 23.8   (0.82) 18.9   (0.79) 12.9   (0.77) 9.8   (0.55) 3.1   (0.40)
                                                             
Germany 514   (2.9) 17.7   (1.03) 5.5   (0.65) 12.2   (0.81) 19.4   (0.81) 23.7   (0.79) 21.7   (0.73) 17.5   (0.94) 12.8   (0.71) 4.7   (0.49)
Greece 453   (2.5) 35.7   (1.34) 14.5   (0.92) 21.2   (0.85) 27.2   (1.02) 22.1   (0.86) 11.2   (0.79) 3.9   (0.43) 3.3   (0.43) 0.6   (0.15)
Hungary 477   (3.2) 28.1   (1.31) 9.9   (0.77) 18.2   (1.04) 25.3   (1.21) 23.0   (1.02) 14.4   (0.86) 9.3   (1.12) 7.1   (0.73) 2.1   (0.51)
Iceland 493   (1.7) 21.5   (0.74) 7.5   (0.54) 14.0   (0.83) 23.6   (0.89) 25.7   (0.95) 18.1   (0.79) 11.2   (0.69) 8.9   (0.61) 2.3   (0.35)
Ireland 501   (2.2) 16.9   (0.99) 4.8   (0.55) 12.1   (0.70) 23.9   (0.72) 28.2   (0.87) 20.3   (0.76) 10.7   (0.54) 8.5   (0.51) 2.2   (0.23)
                                                             
Israel 466   (4.7) 33.5   (1.68) 15.9   (1.23) 17.6   (0.93) 21.6   (0.93) 21.0   (0.87) 14.6   (0.88) 9.4   (0.99) 7.2   (0.74) 2.2   (0.39)
Italy 485   (2.0) 24.7   (0.76) 8.5   (0.39) 16.1   (0.51) 24.1   (0.55) 24.6   (0.62) 16.7   (0.48) 9.9   (0.57) 7.8   (0.44) 2.2   (0.25)
Japan 536   (3.6) 11.1   (0.98) 3.2   (0.49) 7.9   (0.69) 16.9   (0.85) 24.7   (1.00) 23.7   (0.89) 23.7   (1.46) 16.0   (0.89) 7.6   (0.84)
Korea, Republic of 554   (4.6) 9.1   (0.95) 2.7   (0.46) 6.4   (0.62) 14.7   (0.85) 21.4   (0.99) 23.9   (1.23) 30.9   (1.83) 18.8   (0.92) 12.1   (1.26)
Luxembourg 490   (1.1) 24.3   (0.54) 8.8   (0.54) 15.5   (0.54) 22.3   (0.72) 23.6   (0.72) 18.5   (0.58) 11.2   (0.42) 8.6   (0.38) 2.6   (0.25)
                                                             
Mexico 413   (1.4) 54.7   (0.82) 22.8   (0.68) 31.9   (0.58) 27.8   (0.53) 13.1   (0.41) 3.7   (0.23) 0.6   (0.08) 0.6   (0.07)   (†)
Netherlands 523   (3.5) 14.8   (1.28) 3.8   (0.57) 11.0   (0.93) 17.9   (1.08) 24.2   (1.19) 23.8   (1.11) 19.3   (1.21) 14.9   (0.99) 4.4   (0.56)
New Zealand 500   (2.2) 22.6   (0.80) 7.5   (0.58) 15.1   (0.66) 21.6   (0.83) 22.7   (0.76) 18.1   (0.84) 15.0   (0.88) 10.5   (0.75) 4.5   (0.40)
Norway 489   (2.7) 22.3   (1.06) 7.2   (0.78) 15.1   (0.88) 24.3   (0.84) 25.7   (1.01) 18.3   (0.96) 9.4   (0.67) 7.3   (0.56) 2.1   (0.30)
Poland 518   (3.6) 14.4   (0.89) 3.3   (0.38) 11.1   (0.77) 22.1   (0.93) 25.5   (0.94) 21.3   (1.12) 16.7   (1.33) 11.7   (0.78) 5.0   (0.80)
                                                             
Portugal 487   (3.8) 24.9   (1.52) 8.9   (0.79) 16.0   (0.98) 22.8   (0.88) 24.0   (0.84) 17.7   (0.88) 10.6   (0.79) 8.5   (0.73) 2.1   (0.33)
Slovak Republic 482   (3.4) 27.5   (1.28) 11.1   (1.03) 16.4   (0.94) 23.1   (1.10) 22.1   (1.09) 16.4   (1.08) 11.0   (0.94) 7.8   (0.64) 3.1   (0.55)
Slovenia 501   (1.2) 20.1   (0.65) 5.1   (0.48) 15.0   (0.69) 23.6   (0.95) 23.9   (0.96) 18.7   (0.80) 13.7   (0.55) 10.3   (0.64) 3.4   (0.43)
Spain 484   (1.9) 23.6   (0.85) 7.8   (0.50) 15.8   (0.57) 24.9   (0.65) 26.0   (0.59) 17.6   (0.56) 8.0   (0.43) 6.7   (0.42) 1.3   (0.15)
Sweden 478   (2.3) 27.1   (1.12) 9.5   (0.68) 17.5   (0.76) 24.7   (0.92) 23.9   (0.78) 16.3   (0.69) 8.0   (0.52) 6.5   (0.49) 1.6   (0.25)
                                                             
Switzerland 531   (3.0) 12.4   (0.70) 3.6   (0.35) 8.9   (0.59) 17.8   (1.06) 24.5   (1.02) 23.9   (0.80) 21.4   (1.19) 14.6   (0.78) 6.8   (0.69)
Turkey 448   (4.8) 42.0   (1.93) 15.5   (1.08) 26.5   (1.28) 25.5   (1.16) 16.5   (1.05) 10.1   (1.09) 5.9   (1.13) 4.7   (0.81) 1.2 ! (0.46)
United Kingdom 494   (3.3) 21.8   (1.30) 7.8   (0.77) 14.0   (0.76) 23.2   (0.81) 24.8   (0.85) 18.4   (0.78) 11.8   (0.81) 9.0   (0.63) 2.9   (0.42)
United States 481   (3.6) 25.8   (1.39) 8.0   (0.73) 17.9   (0.98) 26.3   (0.84) 23.3   (0.93) 15.8   (0.91) 8.8   (0.78) 6.6   (0.61) 2.2   (0.34)
                                                             
Non-OECD education systems                                                            
Albania 394   (2.0) 60.7   (0.95) 32.5   (1.03) 28.1   (0.97) 22.9   (0.91) 12.0   (0.92) 3.6   (0.35) 0.8   (0.19) 0.8   (0.20)   (†)
Argentina 388   (3.5) 66.5   (2.03) 34.9   (1.95) 31.6   (1.22) 22.2   (1.36) 9.2   (0.88) 1.8   (0.35) 0.3 ! (0.10) 0.3 ! (0.10)   (†)
Brazil 391   (2.1) 67.1   (1.03) 35.2   (0.93) 31.9   (0.70) 20.4   (0.67) 8.9   (0.47) 2.9   (0.35) 0.8   (0.20) 0.7   (0.19)   (†)
Bulgaria 439   (4.0) 43.8   (1.78) 20.0   (1.45) 23.8   (0.95) 24.4   (1.12) 17.9   (0.91) 9.9   (0.83) 4.1   (0.62) 3.4   (0.50) 0.7   (0.19)
Chinese Taipei 560   (3.3) 12.8   (0.84) 4.5   (0.53) 8.3   (0.61) 13.1   (0.61) 17.1   (0.65) 19.7   (0.75) 37.2   (1.24) 19.2   (0.89) 18.0   (1.00)
                                                             
Colombia 376   (2.9) 73.8   (1.43) 41.6   (1.71) 32.2   (1.05) 17.8   (0.90) 6.4   (0.61) 1.6   (0.28) 0.3 ! (0.11) 0.3 ! (0.10)   (†)
Connecticut-USA3 506   (6.2) 20.6   (2.14) 6.8   (1.18) 13.8   (1.33) 20.0   (1.28) 24.3   (1.36) 18.6   (1.79) 16.4   (1.91) 11.5   (1.46) 4.9   (0.83)
Costa Rica 407   (3.0) 59.9   (1.87) 23.6   (1.68) 36.2   (1.22) 26.8   (1.29) 10.1   (0.99) 2.6   (0.46) 0.6 ! (0.19) 0.5 ! (0.16)   (†)
Croatia 471   (3.5) 29.9   (1.36) 9.5   (0.74) 20.4   (1.02) 26.7   (0.95) 22.9   (1.12) 13.5   (0.80) 7.0   (1.15) 5.4   (0.76) 1.6 ! (0.51)
Cyprus 440   (1.1) 42.0   (0.63) 19.0   (0.58) 23.0   (0.65) 25.5   (0.62) 19.2   (0.58) 9.6   (0.44) 3.7   (0.27) 3.1   (0.25) 0.6 ! (0.20)
                                                             
Florida-USA3 467   (5.8) 30.4   (2.65) 9.7   (1.44) 20.6   (1.87) 27.9   (1.42) 23.0   (1.64) 13.0   (1.34) 5.8   (1.18) 4.9   (1.04) 0.9 ! (0.39)
Hong Kong-China 561   (3.2) 8.5   (0.79) 2.6   (0.36) 5.9   (0.61) 12.0   (0.77) 19.7   (0.97) 26.1   (1.09) 33.7   (1.35) 21.4   (0.96) 12.3   (0.95)
Indonesia 375   (4.0) 75.7   (2.05) 42.3   (2.14) 33.4   (1.59) 16.8   (1.12) 5.7   (0.90) 1.5 ! (0.54)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Jordan 386   (3.1) 68.6   (1.50) 36.5   (1.59) 32.1   (0.95) 21.0   (1.04) 8.1   (0.63) 1.8   (0.33)   (†)   (†)   (†)
Kazakhstan 432   (3.0) 45.2   (1.70) 14.5   (0.90) 30.7   (1.40) 31.5   (0.95) 16.9   (1.11) 5.4   (0.79) 0.9 ! (0.29) 0.9 ! (0.27)   (†)
                                                             
Latvia 491   (2.8) 19.9   (1.13) 4.8   (0.53) 15.1   (0.96) 26.6   (1.29) 27.8   (0.92) 17.6   (0.90) 8.0   (0.78) 6.5   (0.65) 1.5   (0.28)
Liechtenstein 535   (4.0) 14.1   (2.02) 3.5 ! (1.31) 10.6   (1.81) 15.2   (2.52) 22.7   (2.81) 23.2   (3.01) 24.8   (2.55) 17.4   (3.17) 7.4   (1.86)
Lithuania 479   (2.6) 26.0   (1.18) 8.7   (0.68) 17.3   (0.89) 25.9   (0.80) 24.6   (1.01) 15.4   (0.70) 8.1   (0.60) 6.6   (0.49) 1.4   (0.24)
Macao-China 538   (1.0) 10.8   (0.49) 3.2   (0.29) 7.6   (0.53) 16.4   (0.71) 24.0   (0.69) 24.4   (0.87) 24.3   (0.56) 16.8   (0.63) 7.6   (0.35)
Malaysia 421   (3.2) 51.8   (1.68) 23.0   (1.19) 28.8   (1.12) 26.0   (0.95) 14.9   (0.93) 6.0   (0.69) 1.3   (0.30) 1.2   (0.28) 0.1 ! (0.05)
                                                             
Massachusetts-USA3 514   (6.2) 17.8   (1.46) 5.3   (0.83) 12.5   (1.17) 20.4   (1.61) 24.3   (1.49) 18.9   (1.18) 18.5   (2.47) 12.7   (1.61) 5.8   (1.11)
Montenegro, Republic of 410   (1.1) 56.6   (1.02) 27.5   (0.64) 29.1   (1.14) 24.2   (1.06) 13.1   (0.73) 4.9   (0.48) 1.0   (0.20) 0.9   (0.20)   (†)
Peru 368   (3.7) 74.6   (1.75) 47.0   (1.79) 27.6   (0.88) 16.1   (1.00) 6.7   (0.68) 2.1   (0.38) 0.6 ! (0.21) 0.5 ! (0.20)   (†)
Qatar 376   (0.8) 69.6   (0.46) 47.0   (0.42) 22.6   (0.53) 15.2   (0.39) 8.8   (0.34) 4.5   (0.28) 2.0   (0.21) 1.7   (0.20) 0.3   (0.07)
Romania 445   (3.8) 40.8   (1.93) 14.0   (1.15) 26.8   (1.23) 28.3   (1.09) 19.2   (1.07) 8.4   (0.81) 3.2   (0.61) 2.6   (0.45) 0.6 ! (0.27)
                                                             
Russian Federation 482   (3.0) 24.0   (1.13) 7.5   (0.70) 16.5   (0.80) 26.6   (0.99) 26.0   (0.97) 15.7   (0.78) 7.8   (0.85) 6.3   (0.64) 1.5   (0.31)
Serbia, Republic of 449   (3.4) 38.9   (1.54) 15.5   (1.16) 23.4   (0.93) 26.5   (1.12) 19.5   (1.03) 10.5   (0.69) 4.6   (0.71) 3.5   (0.52) 1.1   (0.31)
Shanghai-China 613   (3.3) 3.8   (0.55) 0.8   (0.21) 2.9   (0.46) 7.5   (0.64) 13.1   (0.77) 20.2   (0.83) 55.4   (1.37) 24.6   (1.04) 30.8   (1.24)
Singapore 573   (1.3) 8.3   (0.48) 2.2   (0.23) 6.1   (0.40) 12.2   (0.68) 17.5   (0.66) 22.0   (0.62) 40.0   (0.71) 21.0   (0.58) 19.0   (0.51)
Thailand 427   (3.4) 49.7   (1.74) 19.1   (1.07) 30.6   (1.20) 27.3   (1.00) 14.5   (1.15) 5.8   (0.74) 2.6   (0.51) 2.0   (0.38) 0.5 ! (0.19)
                                                             
Tunisia 388   (3.9) 67.7   (1.83) 36.5   (1.88) 31.3   (1.09) 21.1   (1.17) 8.0   (0.79) 2.3   (0.68) 0.8 ! (0.37) 0.7 ! (0.32)   (†)
United Arab Emirates 434   (2.4) 46.3   (1.22) 20.5   (0.92) 25.8   (0.81) 24.9   (0.69) 16.9   (0.64) 8.5   (0.54) 3.5   (0.29) 2.9   (0.25) 0.5   (0.11)
Uruguay 409   (2.8) 55.8   (1.31) 29.2   (1.20) 26.5   (0.76) 23.0   (0.93) 14.4   (0.87) 5.4   (0.60) 1.4   (0.32) 1.3   (0.28)   (†)
Vietnam 511   (4.8) 14.2   (1.75) 3.6   (0.80) 10.6   (1.26) 22.8   (1.28) 28.4   (1.52) 21.3   (1.22) 13.3   (1.47) 9.8   (0.99) 3.5   (0.75)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 To reach a particular proficiency level, a student must correctly answer a majority of items at that level. Students were classified into mathematics literacy levels according to their scores. Exact cut scores are as follows: below level 1 (a score less than or equal to 357.77); level 1 (a score greater than 357.77 and less than or equal to 420.07); level 2 (a score greater than 420.07 and less than or equal to 482.38); level 3 (a score greater than 482.38 and less than or equal to 544.68); level 4 (a score greater than 544.68 and less than or equal to 606.99); level 5 (a score greater than 606.99 and less than or equal to 669.30); and level 6 (a score greater than 669.30).
2 Refers to the mean of the data values for all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries, to which each country contributes equally, regardless of the absolute size of the student population of each country.
3 Results are for public school students only.
NOTE: Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2012. (This table was prepared November 2013.)
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