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Table 331.95. Percentage of undergraduate students ages 18 to 24 in their 4th (senior) year or above who had ever received federal loans, nonfederal loans, or Parent Loans for Undergraduates (PLUS), and the average cumulative amount borrowed, by selected student characteristics and control and level of institution: 1989–90, 1999-2000, and 2011–12
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected student characteristic or control and level of institution 1989–90 1999–2000 2011–12
Total1  Federal loans to students2  Parent PLUS loans4  Total1  Federal
loans to students2 
Parent PLUS loans4  Total1  Federal
loans to students
Nonfederal
loans
Parent PLUS loans4 
Stafford
loans3 
Perkins
loans
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
  Percent of students with loans
Total 50.4 (0.82) 37.8 (0.75) 13.0 (0.64) 4.1 (0.22) 60.0 (0.66) 57.8 (0.69) 12.1   (0.50) 67.7 (0.74) 64.3 (0.71) 29.0   (0.73) 19.9 (0.70)
                                                 
Sex                                                
Male 51.6 (1.24) 37.8 (1.17) 12.6 (0.75) 3.7 (0.29) 58.2 (0.90) 55.6 (0.92) 12.2   (0.54) 67.2 (1.14) 63.4 (1.10) 29.2   (1.09) 19.9 (1.07)
Female 49.2 (0.90) 37.7 (0.87) 13.2 (0.72) 4.3 (0.29) 61.3 (0.91) 59.5 (0.92) 12.1   (0.68) 68.0 (1.01) 65.1 (1.05) 28.9   (0.96) 19.9 (0.91)
                                                 
Race/ethnicity                                                
White 49.5 (0.97) 36.8 (0.92) 11.9 (0.64) 4.2 (0.27) 58.9 (0.79) 56.9 (0.82) 12.4   (0.57) 65.5 (0.87) 62.1 (0.81) 29.6   (0.92) 19.9 (0.88)
Black 68.9 (2.24) 57.1 (2.16) 23.2 (2.42) 7.0 (1.06) 76.8 (2.53) 74.5 (2.49) 15.5   (1.47) 90.3 (1.34) 88.1 (1.74) 31.3   (3.03) 30.4 (2.25)
Hispanic 53.5 (3.52) 37.9 (3.00) 15.7 (1.68) 3.3 (0.78) 63.1 (3.21) 59.1 (2.66) 11.1   (1.56) 72.3 (1.93) 70.2 (1.98) 28.4   (2.19) 19.3 (2.06)
Asian5 40.6 (1.76) 27.4 (2.30) 13.5 (2.67) (†) 50.6 (2.16) 49.5 (2.22) 7.5   (1.29) 50.8 (2.88) 45.2 (2.72) 21.4   (2.76) 9.9 (1.58)
Pacific Islander (†) (†) (†) (†) 55.3 (9.93) 55.3 (9.93) 14.2 ! (5.01) (†) (†)   (†) (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native (†) (†) (†) (†) 46.9 (9.93) 38.7 (9.01)   (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†)
Two or more races (†) (†) (†) (†) 52.1 (4.84) 50.6 (5.09) 8.1 ! (2.52) 77.9 (3.68) 76.4 (3.84) 36.1   (4.68) 20.2 (4.44)
                                                 
Dependency status                                                
Dependent 47.3 (0.97) 35.5 (0.91) 11.7 (0.56) 4.3 (0.25) 59.3 (0.74) 57.0 (0.76) 13.4   (0.58) 66.5 (0.79) 63.4 (0.78) 29.2   (0.79) 21.0 (0.80)
Independent 59.4 (1.46) 44.7 (1.28) 16.7 (1.26) 3.4 (0.35) 62.3 (1.29) 60.5 (1.25) 7.2   (0.57) 73.1 (1.82) 69.0 (1.85) 28.3   (1.99) 14.7 (1.50)
                                                 
Public institutions                                                
4-year doctoral 49.3 (1.41) 36.2 (1.31) 11.7 (1.06) 3.5 (0.30) 57.2 (1.13) 55.0 (1.15) 10.8   (0.62) 64.6 (0.89) 61.9 (0.88) 25.0   (0.87) 16.5 (0.83)
Other 4-year 49.4 (2.05) 34.3 (1.93) 11.3 (0.76) 3.5 (0.52) 57.3 (1.75) 55.9 (1.77) 8.7   (1.32) 64.9 (2.05) 60.1 (1.96) 27.1   (1.94) 16.5 (1.55)
2-year (†) (†) (†) (†) 42.9 (6.05) 40.0 (5.42)   (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†)
Private nonprofit institutions                                                
4-year doctoral 50.4 (1.76) 42.0 (1.92) 20.8 (1.23) 5.1 (0.46) 63.6 (1.70) 61.7 (1.67) 17.2   (1.24) 74.1 (2.82) 69.2 (2.69) 36.9   (2.87) 29.0 (3.14)
Other 4-year 61.9 (1.81) 51.4 (1.56) 15.4 (1.67) 7.2 (0.73) 71.7 (1.89) 68.8 (2.00) 16.5   (1.64) 74.2 (2.69) 71.8 (2.73) 38.2   (2.28) 25.9 (2.16)
Private for-profit institutions
  2-year and above
(†) (†) (†) (†) 85.2 (3.96) 83.8 (4.11) 29.5   (6.01) 85.4 (3.16) 84.3 (3.43) 38.0   (3.73) 38.6 (4.07)
Other and attended multiple
  institutions
41.3 (2.28) 28.8 (2.13) 10.9 (1.10) 3.8 (0.67) 59.9 (2.95) 56.1 (2.80) 13.5   (1.76) 71.0 (1.93) 67.7 (1.93) 30.7   (2.06) 20.3 (1.96)
  Average cumulative loan amount for students with loans (constant 2012–13 dollars)6 
Total 14,900 (320) 11,600 (200) 4,400 (150) 8,900 (260) 21,500 (200) 18,900 (140) 19,000   (750) 25,900 (400) 20,600 (220) 14,700   (730) 27,700 (1,230)
                                                 
Sex                                                
Male 15,400 (350) 11,900 (250) 4,200 (210) 9,500 (400) 21,400 (290) 19,000 (180) 19,700   (970) 26,200 (650) 20,300 (310) 16,200   (1,240) 29,000 (2,090)
Female 14,400 (400) 11,300 (220) 4,500 (160) 8,500 (430) 21,600 (290) 18,800 (220) 18,400   (1,000) 25,600 (480) 20,800 (300) 13,400   (790) 26,600 (1,430)
                                                 
Race/ethnicity                                                
White 15,600 (320) 11,900 (250) 4,300 (130) 9,300 (240) 21,600 (260) 18,800 (170) 19,700   (900) 25,800 (480) 20,000 (270) 15,200   (770) 28,100 (1,580)
Black 11,900 (710) 11,900 (490) 5,500 (610) (†) 25,000 (760) 22,600 (660) 14,900   (1,360) 30,400 (1,160) 26,000 (660) 14,700   (2,180) 25,800 (3,260)
Hispanic 9,900 (920) 9,300 (500) 3,600 (280) (†) 19,000 (800) 16,900 (620) 17,800   (1,760) 24,700 (1,080) 19,900 (690) 13,700   (2,210) 24,300 (3,410)
Asian5 13,000 (830) 9,400 (540) 4,300 (710) (†) 19,200 (560) 17,700 (540) 15,300   (3,350) 20,300 (1,180) 18,000 (750) 10,100   (1,940) 28,600 (3,590)
Pacific Islander (†) (†) (†) (†) 18,400 (2,650) 16,200 (1,770)   (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†)
American Indian/Alaska Native (†) (†) (†) (†) 22,300 (3,740) 21,800 (2,910)   (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†)
Two or more races (†) (†) (†) (†) 20,500 (1,570) 18,000 (1,410)   (†) 25,900 (2,920) 19,100 (1,180) 15,500 ! (5,180) (†)
                                                 
Dependency status                                                
Dependent 15,300 (320) 11,400 (200) 4,400 (170) 9,100 (290) 21,400 (220) 18,500 (150) 19,700   (820) 25,600 (440) 20,000 (230) 14,900   (780) 27,700 (1,090)
Independent 14,100 (540) 12,100 (340) 4,200 (180) 8,000 (510) 22,000 (520) 20,200 (460) 14,600   (1,220) 27,000 (910) 23,000 (710) 13,700   (1,690) 28,100 (6,180)
                                                 
Public institutions                                                
4-year doctoral 13,400 (520) 10,900 (290) 3,900 (240) 9,000 (410) 20,500 (280) 18,600 (220) 16,200   (840) 23,600 (440) 19,800 (310) 12,000   (670) 22,600 (1,080)
Other 4-year 10,000 (400) 9,200 (600) 3,600 (240) 7,600 (570) 19,400 (570) 17,500 (480) 12,200   (700) 21,300 (830) 18,200 (600) 10,500   (1,190) 19,800 (1,750)
2-year (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†) (†)   (†) (†)
Private nonprofit institutions                                                
4-year doctoral 23,100 (440) 14,000 (320) 5,600 (290) 9,600 (540) 26,500 (740) 21,400 (540) 27,400   (1,730) 30,800 (1,860) 22,700 (700) 19,500   (3,130) 41,700 (4,870)
Other 4-year 19,500 (960) 13,400 (420) 5,500 (450) 9,100 (680) 24,700 (630) 20,700 (410) 23,600   (2,190) 32,000 (1,300) 22,300 (590) 20,100   (2,320) 30,200 (2,110)
Private for-profit institutions
  2-years and above
(†) (†) (†) (†) 23,600 (1,940) 19,400 (1,950)   (†) 39,600 (2,020) 31,700 (1,250) 18,600   (3,440) 33,600 (4,070)
Other and attended multiple
  institutions
17,500 (1,130) 12,000 (500) 4,200 (310) (†) 20,000 (930) 17,700 (710) 17,100   (1,460) 26,000 (940) 20,100 (740) 15,900   (1,460) 27,300 (3,650)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either there are too few cases for a reliable estimate or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 For 1989–90 data, total borrowed includes loans from family and friends. For 1999–2000 and 2011–12 data, total borrowed excludes loans from family and friends.
2 Includes Stafford loans and Perkins loans only.
3 Cumulative Stafford loan amounts shown in the table include federal subsidized and unsubsidized Stafford loans as well as any Supplemental Loans for Students (SLS) received in prior years. The SLS program was an unsubsidized student loan program limited to independent students and some dependent students with special circumstances. Beginning in 1993–94, the SLS program was replaced by unsubsidized Stafford loans, which are available to both independent and dependent students regardless of need. Subsidized Stafford loans are only available to students with demonstrated financial need. Stafford Loans were available through both the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program and the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) until FFELP was discontinued in 2010. Since then, Stafford Loans have been referred to as Direct Loans.
4 Parent PLUS loans are taken out by parents of dependent students and are used towards the students’ undergraduate education. Parent PLUS Loans were available through both the William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program and the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) until FFELP was discontinued in 2010. Since then, Parent PLUS Loans have been referred to as Direct PLUS Loans.
5 Includes Pacific Islanders in 1989–90.
6 Average loan amounts were calculated only for students who took out a loan (or whose parents took out a PLUS loan on their behalf). Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 1989–90, 1999–2000, and 2011–12 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:90, NPSAS:2000, and NPSAS:12). (This table was prepared February 2014.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education