Skip Navigation
small NCES header image
Table 208.20. Public and private elementary and secondary teachers, enrollment, pupil/teacher ratios, and new teacher hires: Selected years, fall 1955 through fall 2023
Year Teachers
(in thousands)
Enrollment
(in thousands)
Pupil/teacher ratio Number of new teacher hires
(in thousands)1
Total Public Private Total Public Private Total Public Private Total Public Private
1 2 3   4 5 6   7 8 9   10 11 12 13
1955 1,286 1,141 145 2  35,280 30,680 4,600 2  27.4 26.9 31.7 2       
1960 1,600 1,408 192 2  42,181 36,281 5,900 2  26.4 25.8 30.7 2       
1965 1,933 1,710 223   48,473 42,173 6,300   25.1 24.7 28.3        
1970 2,292 2,059 233   51,257 45,894 5,363   22.4 22.3 23.0        
                                     
1971 2,293 2,063 230 2  51,271 46,071 5,200 2  22.4 22.3 22.6 2       
1972 2,337 2,106 231 2  50,726 45,726 5,000 2  21.7 21.7 21.6 2       
1973 2,372 2,136 236 2  50,445 45,445 5,000 2  21.3 21.3 21.2 2       
1974 2,410 2,165 245 2  50,073 45,073 5,000 2  20.8 20.8 20.4 2       
1975 2,453 2,198 255 2  49,819 44,819 5,000 2  20.3 20.4 19.6 2       
                                     
1976 2,457 2,189 268   49,478 44,311 5,167   20.1 20.2 19.3        
1977 2,488 2,209 279   48,717 43,577 5,140   19.6 19.7 18.4        
1978 2,479 2,207 272   47,637 42,551 5,086   19.2 19.3 18.7        
1979 2,461 2,185 276 2  46,651 41,651 5,000 2  19.0 19.1 18.1 2       
1980 2,485 2,184 301   46,208 40,877 5,331   18.6 18.7 17.7              
                                     
1981 2,440 2,127 313 2  45,544 40,044 5,500 2  18.7 18.8 17.6 2       
1982 2,458 2,133 325 2  45,166 39,566 5,600 2  18.4 18.6 17.2 2       
1983 2,476 2,139 337   44,967 39,252 5,715   18.2 18.4 17.0        
1984 2,508 2,168 340 2  44,908 39,208 5,700 2  17.9 18.1 16.8 2       
1985 2,549 2,206 343   44,979 39,422 5,557   17.6 17.9 16.2        
                                     
1986 2,592 2,244 348 2  45,205 39,753 5,452 2  17.4 17.7 15.7 2       
1987 2,631 2,279 352   45,488 40,008 5,479   17.3 17.6 15.6        
1988 2,668 2,323 345 2  45,430 40,189 5,242 2  17.0 17.3 15.2 2       
1989 2,713 2,357 356   46,141 40,543 5,599   17.0 17.2 15.7        
1990 2,759 2,398 361 2  46,864 41,217 5,648 2  17.0 17.2 15.6 2       
                                     
1991 2,797 2,432 365   47,728 42,047 5,681   17.1 17.3 15.6        
1992 2,823 2,459 364 2  48,694 42,823 5,870 2  17.2 17.4 16.1 2       
1993 2,868 2,504 364   49,532 43,465 6,067   17.3 17.4 16.7        
1994 2,922 2,552 370 2  50,106 44,111 5,994 2  17.1 17.3 16.2 2       
1995 2,974 2,598 376   50,759 44,840 5,918   17.1 17.3 15.7        
                                     
1996 3,051 2,667 384 2  51,544 45,611 5,933 2  16.9 17.1 15.5 2       
1997 3,138 2,746 391   52,071 46,127 5,944   16.6 16.8 15.2        
1998 3,230 2,830 400 2  52,526 46,539 5,988 2  16.3 16.4 15.0 2       
1999 3,319 2,911 408   52,875 46,857 6,018   15.9 16.1 14.7   305   222   83  
2000 3,366 2,941 424 2  53,373 47,204 6,169 2  15.9 16.0 14.5 2       
                                     
2001 3,440 3,000 441   53,992 47,672 6,320   15.7 15.9 14.3        
2002 3,476 3,034 442 2  54,403 48,183 6,220 2  15.7 15.9 14.1 2       
2003 3,490 3,049 441   54,639 48,540 6,099   15.7 15.9 13.8   311   236   74  
2004 3,536 3,091 445 2  54,882 48,795 6,087 2  15.5 15.8 13.7 2       
2005 3,593 3,143 450   55,187 49,113 6,073   15.4 15.6 13.5        
                                     
2006 3,622 3,166 456 2  55,307 49,316 5,991 2  15.3 15.6 13.2 2       
2007 3,634 3,178 456   55,203 49,293 5,910   15.2 15.5 13.0   241   173   68  
2008 3,670 3,222 448 2  54,973 49,266 5,707 2  15.0 15.3 12.8 2       
2009 3,647 3,210 437   54,849 49,361 5,488   15.0 15.4 12.5        
2010 3,529 3,099 429 2  54,867 49,484 5,382 2  15.5 16.0 12.5 2       
                                     
2011 3,524 3,103 421   54,790 49,522 5,268   15.5 16.0 12.5   241   173   68  
20123 3,525 3,111 414   54,833 49,652 5,181   15.6 16.0 12.5   245   171   74  
20133 3,524 3,118 407   54,842 49,750 5,091   15.6 16.0 12.5   239   170   69  
20143 3,515 3,118 397   54,725 49,751 4,974   15.6 16.0 12.5   232   166   66  
20153 3,514 3,123 391   54,731 49,839 4,892   15.6 16.0 12.5   241   175   67  
                                     
20163 3,544 3,155 390   54,790 49,951 4,839   15.5 15.8 12.4   272   202   70  
20173 3,593 3,199 394   55,132 50,280 4,852   15.3 15.7 12.3   293   217   76  
20183 3,630 3,235 395   55,380 50,543 4,837   15.3 15.6 12.3   289   214   74  
20193 3,666 3,269 397   55,671 50,834 4,836   15.2 15.5 12.2   292   217   75  
20203 3,699 3,300 398   56,010 51,165 4,844   15.1 15.5 12.2   291   216   76  
                                     
20213 3,736 3,335 401   56,343 51,485 4,857   15.1 15.4 12.1   296   219   77  
20223 3,776 3,371 405   56,684 51,804 4,880   15.0 15.4 12.1   303   225   79  
20233 3,817 3,408 409   57,023 52,113 4,910   14.9 15.3 12.0   308   227   80  
—Not available.
1 A teacher is considered to be a new hire for a public or private school if the teacher had not taught in that control of school in the previous year. A teacher who moves from a public to private or a private to public school is considered a new teacher hire, but a teacher who moves from one public school to another public school or one private school to another private school is not considered a new teacher hire.
2 Estimated.
3 Projected.
NOTE: Data for teachers are expressed in full-time equivalents (FTE). Counts of private school teachers and enrollment include prekindergarten through grade 12 in schools offering kindergarten or higher grades. Counts of public school teachers and enrollment include prekindergarten through grade 12. The pupil/teacher ratio includes teachers for students with disabilities and other special teachers, while these teachers are generally excluded from class size calculations. Ratios for public schools reflect totals reported by states and differ from totals reported for schools or school districts. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary Day Schools, 1955-56 through 1980-81; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1981-82 through 2011-12; Private School Universe Survey (PSS), 1989-90 through 2011-12; Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Teacher Data File" and "Private School Teacher Data File," 1999-2000 through 2011-12; Elementary and Secondary Teacher Projection Model, 1973 through 2023; and New Teacher Hires Projection Model, 1988 through 2023. (This table was prepared February 2014.)
Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey

or

No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education