The Introduction provides a brief overview of current trends in American education, highlighting key data that are presented in more detail later in this volume. Topics outlined include the participation of students, teachers, and faculty in U.S. educational institutions; the performance of U.S. elementary/secondary students overall and in comparison to students in other countries; the numbers of high school graduates and postsecondary degrees; and the amounts of expenditures on education at the elementary/secondary and postsecondary levels.
In fall 2013, about 75.4 million people were enrolled in American schools and colleges (table 105.10). About 4.5 million people were employed as elementary and secondary school teachers or as college faculty, in full-time equivalents (FTE). Other professional, administrative, and support staff at educational institutions totaled 5.3 million. All data for 2013 in this Introduction are projected, except for data on educational attainment. Some data for other years are projected or estimated as noted. In discussions of historical trends, different time periods and specific years are cited, depending on the timing of important changes as well as the availability of relevant data.
A pattern of annual increases in total public elementary and secondary school enrollment began in 1985, but enrollment stabilized at 49.3 million between 2006 and 2008, before beginning to increase again (table 105.30). Overall, public school enrollment rose 26 percent, from 39.4 million to 49.8 million, between 1985 and 2013. Private school enrollment fluctuated during this period, with the fall 2013 enrollment of 5.1 million being 8 percent lower than the enrollment of 5.6 million in 1985. About 9 percent of elementary and secondary school students were enrolled in private schools in 2013, reflecting a decrease from 12 percent in 1985.
In public schools between 1985 and 2013, there was a 30 percent increase in elementary enrollment (prekindergarten through grade 8), compared with an 18 percent increase in secondary enrollment (grades 9 through 12) (table 105.30). Part of the higher growth in public elementary school enrollment resulted from the expansion of prekindergarten enrollment (table 203.10). Between fall 1985 and fall 2011, enrollment in prekindergarten increased 753 percent, while enrollment in other elementary grades (including kindergarten through grade 8 plus ungraded elementary programs) increased 25 percent. The number of children enrolled in prekindergarten increased from 0.2 million in 1985 to 1.3 million in 2011, and the number enrolled in other elementary grades increased from 26.9 million to 33.5 million. Public secondary school enrollment declined 8 percent from 1985 to 1990, but then increased 33 percent from 1990 to 2007, before declining 3 percent from 2007 to 2013 (table 105.30). Between 1990 and 2013, the net increase in public secondary school enrollment was 29 percent, compared with an 18 percent increase in public elementary school enrollment. Over the most recent 10-year period (between 2003 and 2013), public school enrollment rose 2 percent. Elementary enrollment was 3 percent higher in 2013 than in 2003, and secondary enrollment was 2 percent higher.
Since the enrollment rates of 5- and 6-year-olds, 7- to 13-year-olds, and 14- to 17-year-olds changed by about 3 or fewer percentage points from 1985 to 2012, increases in public elementary and secondary school enrollment primarily reflect increases in the number of children in these age groups (tables 101.10 and 103.20). For example, the enrollment rate of 7- to 13-year-olds decreased from 99 to 98 percent between 1985 and 2012, but the number of 7- to 13-year-olds increased by 25 percent. Increases in both the enrollment rate of 3- and 4-year-old children (from 39 percent in 1985 to 54 percent in 2012) and the number of children in this age group (from 7.1 million to 8.1 million) also contributed to overall enrollment increases.
The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) projects record levels of public elementary and secondary enrollment from 2013 (49.8 million) through at least 2023 (52.1 million) (table 105.30). For public schools, the projected fall 2013 enrollment is expected to be a new record, and new records are expected every year through 2023, the last year for which NCES enrollment projections have been developed. Public elementary school enrollment (prekindergarten through grade 8) is projected to increase by 5 percent between 2013 and 2023. Public secondary school enrollment (grades 9 through 12) is expected to increase 3 percent between 2013 and 2023. Overall, total public school enrollment is expected to increase 5 percent between 2013 and 2023.
A projected 3.5 million full-time-equivalent (FTE) elementary and secondary school teachers were engaged in classroom instruction in fall 2013 (table 105.40). This number is about 1 percent higher than in fall 2003. The 2013 projected number of FTE teachers includes 3.1 million public school teachers and 0.4 million private school teachers.
Both public school enrollment and the number of public school teachers were about 2 percent higher in 2013 than they were in 2003 (table 208.20). In fall 2003, the number of public school pupils per teacher was 15.9, compared with a projected number of 16.0 public school pupils per teacher in fall 2013.
The average salary for public school teachers in 2012–13 was $56,383 in current dollars (i.e., dollars that are not adjusted for inflation) (table 211.50). In constant (i.e., inflation-adjusted) dollars, the average salary decreased 1 percent between 1990–91 and 2012–13.
Most of the student performance data in the Digest are drawn from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). The NAEP assessments have been conducted using three basic designs: the national main NAEP, state NAEP, and long-term trend NAEP. The national main NAEP and state NAEP provide current information about student performance in subjects including reading, mathematics, science, and writing, while long-term trend NAEP provides information on performance since the early 1970s in reading and mathematics only. Results from long-term trend NAEP are included in the discussion in chapter 2 of the Digest, while the information in this Introduction includes only selected results from the national main and state NAEP.
The main NAEP reports current information for the nation and specific geographic regions of the country. The assessment program includes students drawn from both public and private schools and reports results for student achievement at grades 4, 8, and 12. The main NAEP assessments follow the frameworks developed by the National Assessment Governing Board and use the latest advances in assessment methodology. The state NAEP is identical in content to the national main NAEP, but the state NAEP reports information only for public school students. Chapter 2 presents more information on the NAEP designs and methodology, and additional details appear in Appendix A: Guide to Sources.
The main NAEP assessment data are reported on a scale of 0 to 500. In 2013, the average reading score for 4th-grade students (222) was not measurably different from the 2011 score, but it was higher than the scores on assessments between 1992 (217) and 2009 (221) (table 221.10). At grade 4, only the average reading scores for White students were higher in 2013 (232) than in both 2011 (231) and 1992 (224). The 2013 scores for Black (206), Hispanic (207), and Asian/Pacific Islander (235) 4th-graders were not measurably different from the 2011 scores, but the 2013 scores were higher than the 1992 scores (192, 197, and 216, respectively). For 8th-grade students, the average reading score in 2013 (268) was more than 2 points higher than in 2011 (265), was 8 points higher than in 1992 (260), and was higher than the average scores in all previous years. At grade 8, the average reading scores for White (276), Black (250), Hispanic (256), and Asian/Pacific Islander (280) students were higher in 2013 than in 2011 and 1992. At grade 12, average scores did not change measurably from 1992 to 2009 for White, Black, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Islander, or American Indian/Alaska Native students.
While there was no measurable change from 2011 to 2013 in the average score for 4th-grade public school students nationally, average scores were higher in 2013 than in 2011 in Colorado, the Department of Defense dependents schools, Indiana, Iowa, Maine, Minnesota, Tennessee, Washington, and the District of Columbia; scores were lower in 2013 than in 2011 in Massachusetts, Montana, and North Dakota (table 221.40). At grade 8, although the average reading score for public school students nationally was 2 points higher in 2013 than in 2011, only 12 states (Arkansas, California, Florida, Hawaii, Iowa, Nevada, New Hampshire, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Utah, and Washington) plus the District of Columbia and the Department of Defense dependents schools had higher scores in 2013 than in 2011 (table 221.60). In the other states, scores did not change measurably from 2011 to 2013.
In 2013, the average NAEP mathematics scores for 4th-grade and 8th-grade students were higher than the average scores in all previous assessment years (table 222.10). The average 4th-grade NAEP mathematics score increased from 213 in 1990 (the first assessment year) to 242 in 2013, an increase of 28 points (based on unrounded scores). During that same period, the average 8th-grade score increased by 22 points, from 263 to 285. At grade 4, the average mathematics scores in 2013 for White (250) and Hispanic students (231) were higher than the scores in both 2011 and 1990. The 2013 score for Black 4th-graders (224) was not measurably different from the 2011 score, but it was higher than the 1990 score. The 2013 score for Asian 4th-graders (259) was also not measurably different from the 2011 score; prior to 2011, separate data on Asians were not available. At grade 8, the average mathematics scores in 2013 for all racial/ethnic groups were not measurably different from the 2011 scores. However, the 2013 scores for White (294), Black (263), and Hispanic (272) 8th-graders were higher than the scores in 1990.
NAEP results also permit state-level comparisons of the mathematics achievement of 4th- and 8th-grade students in public schools (tables 222.50 and 222.60). The average mathematics scores for 4th-grade public school students increased from 2011 to 2013 in 14 states (Arizona, Colorado, Delaware, Hawaii, Indiana, Iowa, Minnesota, Nebraska, New York, North Dakota, Tennessee, Washington, West Virginia, and Wyoming) and the District of Columbia and did not decrease for any states. At grade 8, scores were higher in 2013 than in 2011 in five states (Florida, Hawaii, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania, and Tennessee), the District of Columbia, and the Department of Defense dependents schools, and scores decreased in three states (Montana, Oklahoma, and South Dakota).
NAEP has assessed the science abilities of students in grades 4, 8, and 12 in both public and private schools since 1996. As of 2009, however, NAEP science assessments are based on a new framework, so results from these assessments cannot be compared to results from earlier science assessments. The average eighth-grade science score increased from 150 in 2009 to 152 in 2011 (table 223.10). Average scores for both male and female students were higher in 2011 than in 2009. Male students scored 5 points higher on average than female students in 2011, which was not significantly different from the 4-point gap in 2009. Score gaps between White and Black students and between White and Hispanic students narrowed from 2009 to 2011. The 5-point gain from 2009 to 2011 for Hispanic students was larger than the 1-point gain for White students, narrowing the score gap from 30 points to 27 points. Black students scored 3 points higher in 2011 than in 2009. The 35-point score gap between White and Black students in 2011 was smaller than the 36-point gap in 2009. The average scores of Asian/Pacific Islander and American Indian/Alaska Native students were not significantly different in 2011 from their scores in 2009.
The 2011 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) assessed students' mathematics and science performance at grade 4 in 45 countries and at grade 8 in 38 countries. In addition to countries, a number of subnational entities—including the public school systems in several U.S. states—also participated in TIMSS as separate education systems. Results for the participating states are included in the discussion in chapter 6 of the Digest, while this Introduction includes only results for the United States and other countries. TIMSS assessments are curriculum based and measure what students have actually learned against the subject matter that is expected to be taught in the participating countries by the end of grades 4 and 8. At both grades, TIMSS scores are reported on a scale of 0 to 1,000, with the scale average set at 500.
On the 2011 TIMSS, the average mathematics scores of U.S. 4th-graders (541) and 8th-graders (509) were higher than the scale average (tables 602.20 and 602.30). U.S. 4th-graders scored higher in mathematics, on average, than their counterparts in 37 countries and lower than those in 3 countries (table 602.20). Average mathematics scores in the other 4 countries were not measurably different from the U.S. average. At grade 8, the average U.S. mathematics score was higher than the average scores of students in 27 countries in 2011 and below the average scores of students in 4 countries (table 602.30). Average 8th-grade mathematics scores in the other 6 countries were not measurably different from the U.S. average. The average science scores of both U.S. 4th-graders (544) and U.S. 8th-graders (525) were higher than the TIMSS scale average of 500 in 2011. The average U.S. 4th-grade science score was higher than the average scores of students in 39 countries and lower than those of students in 5 countries. At grade 8, the average U.S. science score was higher than the average scores of students in 28 countries, lower than those in 6 countries, and not measurably different from those in the other 3 countries.
The Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), coordinated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), has measured the performance of 15-year-old students in reading, mathematics, and science literacy every 3 years since 2000. PISA assesses 15-year-old students' application of reading, mathematics, and science literacy to problems within a real-life context. In 2012, PISA assessed students in the 34 OECD countries as well as in a number of other education systems. Some subnational entities participated as separate education systems, including public school systems in the U.S. states of Connecticut, Florida, and Massachusetts. Results for the participating U.S. states are included in the discussion in chapter 6, while this Introduction includes only results for the United States in comparison with other OECD countries. PISA scores are reported on a scale of 0 to 1,000.
On the 2012 PISA assessment, U.S. 15-year-olds' average score in reading literacy was 498, which was not measurably different from the OECD average of 496 (table 602.50). The average reading literacy score in the United States was lower than the average score in 13 of the 33 other OECD countries, higher than the average score in 10 of the other OECD countries, and not measurably different from the average score in 10 of the OECD countries. In all countries, females outperformed males in reading (table 602.40). The U.S. gender gap in reading (31 points) was smaller than the OECD average gap (38 points) and smaller than the gaps in 14 of the OECD countries.
In mathematics literacy, U.S. 15-year-olds' average score of 481 on the 2012 PISA assessment was lower than the OECD average score of 494 (table 602.60). The average mathematics literacy score in the United States was lower than the average in 21 of the 33 other OECD countries, higher than the average in 5 OECD countries, and not measurably different from the average in 7 OECD countries. In 25 of the OECD countries, males outperformed females in mathematics literacy (table 602.40). In the United States, however, the average score of males (484) was not measurably different from that of females (479).
In science literacy, U.S. 15-year-olds' average score of 497 was not measurably different from the OECD average score of 501 (table 602.70). The average science literacy score in the United States was lower than the average in 15 OECD countries, higher than the average in 8 OECD countries, and not measurably different from the average in 10 OECD countries.
The Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) measures the reading knowledge and skills of 4th-graders over time. On the 2011 PIRLS, U.S. 4th-graders had an average reading literacy score of 556 (table 602.10). The U.S. average score in 2011 was 14 points higher than in 2001 and 16 points higher than in 2006. In all three assessment years, the U.S. average score was higher than the PIRLS scale average. (PIRLS scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average set at 500.) In 2011, PIRLS assessed 4th-grade reading literacy in 40 countries. The average reading literacy score of 4th-graders in the United States was higher than the average score in 33 of the 39 other participating countries, lower than the average score in 3 countries, and not measurably different from the average in the remaining 3 countries.
High School Graduates and Dropouts
About 3,323,000 high school students are expected to graduate during the 2014–15 school year (table 219.10), including about 3,031,000 public school graduates and 291,000 private school graduates. High school graduates include only recipients of diplomas, not recipients of equivalency credentials. The number of high school graduates projected for 2014–15 is lower than the record high in 2011–12, but exceeds the baby boom era's high point in 1975–76, when 3,142,000 students earned diplomas. In 2011–12, an estimated 80.8 percent of public high school students graduated on time—that is, received a diploma 4 years after beginning their freshman year (table 219.35).
The number of General Educational Development (GED) credentials issued by the states to GED test passers rose from 330,000 in 1977 to 487,000 in 2000 (table 219.60). A record number of 648,000 GED credentials were issued in 2001. In 2002, there were revisions to the GED test and to the data reporting procedures. In 2001, test takers were required to successfully complete all five components of the GED or else begin the five-part series again with the new test that was introduced in 2002. Prior to 2002, reporting was based on summary data from the states on the number of GED credentials issued. As of 2002, reporting has been based on individual GED candidate- and test-level records collected by the GED Testing Service. Between 2002 and 2012, the number of persons passing the GED tests increased by 22 percent, from 330,000 to 401,000.1
The percentage of dropouts among 16- to 24-year-olds has decreased over the past two decades. This percentage, known as the status dropout rate, includes all people in the 16- to 24-year-old age group who are not enrolled in school and who have not completed a high school program, regardless of when they left school. (People who left school but went on to receive a GED credential are not treated as dropouts in this measure.) Between 1990 and 2012, the status dropout rate declined from 12.1 percent to 6.6 percent (table 219.70). Although the status dropout rate declined for both Blacks and Hispanics during this period, their rates in 2012 (7.5 and 12.7 percent, respectively) remained higher than the rate for Whites (4.3 percent). This measure is based on the civilian noninstitutionalized population, which excludes people in prisons, people in the military, and other people not living in households.
College enrollment was 20.6 million in fall 2012, which was about 2 percent lower than the record enrollment in fall 2010 (table 105.30). College enrollment is expected to set new records from fall 2015 through fall 2023. Between fall 2012 and fall 2023, enrollment is expected to increase by 15 percent. Despite decreases in the size of the traditional college-age population (18 to 24 years old) during the late 1980s and early 1990s, total enrollment increased during this period (tables 101.10 and 105.30). The traditional college-age population rose 10 percent between 2002 and 2012, and total college enrollment increased 24 percent during the same period. Between 2002 and 2012, the number of full-time students increased by 28 percent, compared with a 19 percent increase in part-time students (table 303.10). During the same time period, the number of males enrolled increased 24 percent, and the number of females enrolled increased 25 percent.
In fall 2011, degree-granting institutions—defined as postsecondary institutions that grant an associate's or higher degree and are eligible for Title IV federal financial aid programs—employed 1.5 million faculty members, including 0.8 million full-time and 0.8 million part-time faculty (table 314.30). In addition, degree-granting institutions employed 0.4 million graduate assistants.
During the 2013–14 academic year, postsecondary degrees are projected to number 1,031,000 associate's degrees; 1,844,000 bachelor's degrees; 791,000 master's degrees; and 177,000 doctor's degrees (table 318.10). The doctor's degree total includes most degrees formerly classified as first-professional, such as M.D., D.D.S., and law degrees. Between 2001–02 and 2011–12 (the last year of actual data), the number of degrees conferred increased at all levels. The number of associate's degrees was 71 percent higher in 2011–10 than in 2001–02, the number of bachelor's degrees was 39 percent higher, the number of master's degrees was 55 percent higher, and the number of doctor's degrees was 42 percent higher.
Between 2001–02 and 2011–12, the number of bachelor's degrees awarded to males increased 39 percent, while the number of bachelor's degrees awarded to females increased 38 percent. Females earned 57 percent of all bachelor's degrees in 2011–12, the same percentage as in 2001–02. Between 2001–02 and 2011–12, the number of White students earning bachelor's degrees increased 26 percent, compared with the larger increases of 59 percent for Black students, 104 percent for Hispanic students, and 52 percent for Asian/Pacific Islander students (table 322.20). The number of American Indian/Alaska Native students earning bachelor's degrees increased 25 percent over the same period. In 2011–12, White students earned 70 percent of all bachelor's degrees awarded (vs. 77 percent in 2001–02), Black students earned 11 percent (vs. 9 percent in 2001–02), Hispanic students earned 10 percent (vs. 7 percent in 2001–02), and Asian/Pacific Islander students earned about 7 percent (increasing their share of the degrees from 6.6 percent in 2001–02 to 7.3 percent in 2011–12). American Indian/Alaska Native students earned about 1 percent of the degrees in both years.
For the 2012–13 academic year, annual prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board were estimated to be $15,022 at public institutions, $39,173 at private nonprofit institutions, and $23,158 at private for-profit institutions (table 330.10). Between 2002–03 and 2012–13, prices for undergraduate tuition, room, and board at public institutions rose 39 percent, and prices at private nonprofit institutions rose 27 percent, after adjustment for inflation. Prices for total tuition, room, and board at private for-profit institutions decreased 7 percent between 2002–03 and 2012–13.
The U.S. Census Bureau collects annual statistics on the educational attainment of the population. Between 2003 and 2013, the percentage of the adult population 25 years of age and over who had completed high school rose from 85 percent to 88 percent, and the percentage of adults with a bachelor's degree increased from 27 percent to 32 percent (table 104.10). High school completers include those people who graduated from high school with a diploma, as well as those who completed high school through equivalency programs. The percentage of young adults (25- to 29-year-olds) who had completed high school increased from 87 percent in 2003 to 90 percent in 2013 (table 104.20). The percentage of young adults who had completed a bachelor's degree increased from 28 percent in 2003 to 34 percent in 2013.
Expenditures for public and private education, from prekindergarten through graduate school (excluding postsecondary schools not awarding associate's or higher degrees), are estimated at $1.2 trillion for 2012–13 (table 106.10). Expenditures of elementary and secondary schools are expected to total $669 billion, while those of degree-granting postsecondary institutions are expected to total $496 billion. Total expenditures for education are expected to amount to 7.2 percent of the gross domestic product in 2012–13, about the same as in 2002–03, but lower than the percentage in 2009–10 (7.6 percent).
1 Information on changes in GED test series and reporting is based on the 2003 edition of Who Passed the GED Tests?, by the GED Testing Service of the American Council on Education, as well as communication with staff of the GED Testing Service.