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table 461. Average eighth-grade scores and annual instructional time in mathematics and science, by country or other education system: 2011
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Country or other education system1 Total instructional hours per year Mathematics Science
Average score2 Instructional time in mathematics Average score2 Instructional time in science3
Hours per year As a percent of total instruc-
tional hours
Hours per year As a percent of total instruc-
tional hours
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
TIMSS average4  1,031   (2.3) 500   (†) 138   (0.5) 14 (0.1) 500   (†) 158   (0.8) 11   (0.1)
Armenia 979 5 (12.8) 467   (2.7) 143 5 (3.0) 15 (0.2) 437   (3.1) 240 6 (4.9)   (†)
Australia 1,039   (7.2) 505   (5.1) 143 6 (3.5) 14 (0.3) 519   (4.8) 131 6 (4.5) 12   (0.4)
Bahrain 1,019   (1.1) 409 7 (2.0) 142 5 (2.5) 14 (0.3) 452   (2.0) 130 5 (2.8) 13   (0.3)
Chile 1,245 5 (23.5) 416   (2.6) 193 5 (4.5) 15 (0.3) 461   (2.5) 134 5 (3.8) 11   (0.3)
Chinese Taipei-CHN 1,153   (11.7) 609   (3.2) 166   (2.4) 15 (0.2) 564   (2.3) 157   (2.7) 14   (0.3)
                                         
England-GBR8  992 5 (8.4) 507   (5.5) 116 5 (2.1) 11 (0.3) 533   (4.9) 102 6 (3.1) 10   (0.4)
Finland 934   (11.7) 514   (2.5) 105   (1.8) 11 (0.2) 552   (2.5) 190 5 (6.0)   (†)
Georgia9,10 833 5 (10.8) 431   (3.8) 123 5 (3.3) 15 (0.5) 420   (3.0) 198 5 (6.8)   (†)
Ghana 1,153 5 (18.9) 331 11 (4.3) 165 5 (6.8) 14 (0.6) 306 7 (5.2) 148 5 (6.1) 13   (0.4)
Hong Kong-CHN 1,026 5 (11.3) 586   (3.8) 138 5 (2.9) 13 (0.3) 535   (3.4) 103 5 (4.6) 10   (0.4)
                                         
Hungary 836   (12.2) 505   (3.5) 119   (1.9) 15 (0.3) 522   (3.1) 236   (4.8) 28 ! (13.1)
Indonesia 1,494 5 (40.9) 386 7 (4.3) 173 5 (7.9) 12 (0.6) 406   (4.5) 190 5 (12.2) 10   (0.5)
Iran, Islamic Republic of 994   (15.9) 415 7 (4.3) 124   (3.3) 13 (0.3) 474   (4.0) 120   (3.6) 12   (0.4)
Israel12 1,108 5 (14.1) 516   (4.1) 165 5 (3.0) 15 (0.2) 516   (4.0) 132   (3.9) 12   (0.4)
Italy 1,085   (9.4) 498   (2.4) 155   (2.5) 14 (0.2) 501   (2.5) 73   (1.0) 7   (0.1)
                                         
Japan 1,016   (6.7) 570   (2.6) 108   (1.4) 11 (0.1) 558   (2.4) 128   (1.7) 12   (0.3)
Jordan 1,041   (11.9) 406 7 (3.7) 130   (3.8) 13 (0.4) 449   (4.0) 134   (3.1) 13   (0.4)
Kazakhstan 920   (9.9) 487   (4.0) 117   (3.2) 13 (0.4) 490   (4.3) 244   (4.8) 27 ! (11.0)
Korea, Republic of 1,006   (12.1) 613   (2.9) 137   (1.8) 13 (0.2) 560   (2.0) 126   (2.5) 11   (0.2)
Lebanon 1,028 5 (12.7) 449   (3.7) 178 5 (3.9) 17 (0.4) 406   (4.9)   (†)   (†)
                                         
Lithuania9 898   (13.9) 502   (2.5) 132   (2.7) 15 (0.4) 514   (2.6) 251 5 (5.2)   (†)
Macedonia, Republic of 1,023 5 (21.4) 426 7 (5.2) 122 6 (4.6) 13 (0.6) 407   (5.4) 334 6 (14.7)   (†)
Malaysia 1,198 5 (13.7) 440   (5.4) 123 5 (3.4) 10 (0.3) 426   (6.3) 126   (3.6) 10   (0.3)
Morocco 1,303 5 (24.9) 371 11 (2.0) 148 5 (2.1) 12 (0.2) 376   (2.2) 144 5 (2.0)   (†)
New Zealand 959   (4.4) 488   (5.5) 141   (1.8) 15 (0.2) 512   (4.6) 130 5 (2.6) 14   (0.3)
                                         
Norway 880   (6.3) 475   (2.4) 125   (3.4) 14 (0.4) 494   (2.6) 101   (3.3) 11   (0.4)
Oman 1,044 5 (17.7) 366 7 (2.8) 161 5 (5.1) 16 (0.4) 420   (3.2) 161 6 (3.8) 16   (0.3)
Palestinian National                                        
Authority 918   (7.3) 404 7 (3.5) 134   (4.0) 15 (0.4) 420   (3.2) 107   (3.4) 12   (0.4)
Qatar 1,054   (1.3) 410 7 (3.1) 162   (3.6) 15 (0.4) 419   (3.4) 131   (6.9) 12   (0.5)
Romania 984   (15.5) 458   (4.0) 145   (3.7) 15 (0.3) 465   (3.5) 281   (10.1)   (†)
                                         
Russian Federation13 882   (8.7) 539   (3.6) 142   (2.0) 16 (0.3) 542   (3.2) 208   (1.6) 24 ! (8.8)
Saudi Arabia 1,050 5 (20.9) 394 7 (4.6) 134 5 (5.4) 13 (0.4) 436   (3.9) 124 5 (6.8) 12   (0.5)
Singapore13 1,106   (#) 611   (3.8) 138   (1.7) 13 (0.2) 590   (4.3) 115   (2.1) 11   (0.2)
Slovenia 798   (#) 505   (2.2) 121   (1.5) 15 (0.2) 543   (2.7) 251   (4.6) 31   (4.6)
Sweden 969 5 (13.4) 484   (1.9) 97 6 (2.2) 10 (0.3) 509   (2.5) 94 6 (3.1) 9   (0.4)
                                         
Syrian Arab Republic 811   (14.2) 380 7 (4.5) 118 5 (4.7) 15 (0.5) 426   (3.9) 150 5 (7.5)   (†)
Thailand 1,270 5 (15.1) 427   (4.3) 129   (4.3) 10 (0.3) 451   (3.9) 119   (2.9) 9   (0.3)
Tunisia 1,299 5 (25.4) 425   (2.8) 131 5 (3.0) 10 (0.2) 439   (2.5) 64 5 (1.9) 5   (0.1)
Turkey 889   (16.7) 452   (3.9) 117   (1.8) 14 (0.3) 483   (3.4) 99   (1.1) 12   (0.2)
Ukraine 901   (10.7) 479   (3.9) 132   (3.5) 15 (0.4) 501   (3.4) 239   (4.0) 27 ! (11.4)
                                         
United Arab Emirates 1,046 5 (8.0) 456   (2.1) 157 5 (2.9) 15 (0.3) 465   (2.4) 115 6 (2.7) 11   (0.3)
United States13 1,114   (6.6) 509   (2.6) 157 6 (3.2) 14 (0.3) 525   (2.6) 139 14 (2.4) 13 14 (0.2)
                                         
Benchmarking education                                        
systems                                        
Abu Dhabi-UAE 1,045 5 (16.6) 449   (3.7) 158 5 (5.8) 15 (0.5) 461   (4.0) 111 6 (4.8) 11   (0.5)
Alabama-USA9,15  1,135 5 (16.0) 466   (5.9) 166 6 (8.9) 15 (0.9) 485   (6.2) 167 6 (6.0) 15   (0.5)
Alberta-CAN13  1,031   (10.0) 505   (2.6) 156   (4.2) 19 (0.4) 546   (2.4) 145 5 (4.0) 10   (0.4)
California-USA9,13,15  1,040 5 (15.2) 493   (4.9) 172 6 (8.0) 17 (0.7) 499   (4.6)   (†) 14   (0.7)
Colorado-USA9,15  1,148   (17.0) 518   (4.9) 173 5 (8.6) 15 (0.8) 542   (4.4) 138 6 (6.0) 12   (0.5)
                                         
Connecticut-USA9,13,15  . 1,071   (19.3) 518   (4.8) 144 5 (4.4) 14 (0.5) 532   (4.6) 139 6 (6.2) 13   (0.6)
Dubai-UAE . 1,022 5 (1.5) 478   (2.1) 155 5 (3.6) 15 (0.3) 485   (2.5) 125 6 (3.6) 11   (0.3)
Florida-USA9,13,15 1,119 5 (17.0) 513   (6.4) 144 6 (7.4) 13 (0.7) 530   (7.3)   (†) 13   (0.8)
Indiana-USA9,13,15 1,133 5 (14.9) 522   (5.1) 149 6 (6.9) 13 (0.7) 533   (4.8) 132 6 (6.5) 12   (0.6)
Massachusetts-USA9,13,15 1,087   (13.6) 561   (5.3) 154 5 (5.4) 14 (0.6) 567   (5.1) 156 6 (6.1) 15   (0.6)
                                         
Minnesota-USA9,15  1,043   (14.8) 545   (4.6) 142 5 (7.5) 14 (0.7) 553   (4.6) 140 6 (8.3) 14   (0.9)
North Carolina-USA9,12,15 1,159   (16.0) 537   (6.8) 185 6 (9.7) 16 (0.8) 532   (6.3)   (†) 16   (1.2)
Ontario-CAN13  971 5 (7.5) 512   (2.5) 181 5 (3.9) 16 (0.5) 521   (2.5) 96 5 (3.5) 11   (0.3)
Quebec-CAN . 913   (3.3) 532   (2.3) 147   (4.1) 15 (0.5) 520   (2.5) 102 5 (3.0) 14   (0.4)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. Either data are available for less than 50 percent of the students or the coefficient of variation (CV) is 50 percent or greater.
1 Most of the education systems represent complete countries, but some represent subnational entities such as U.S. states, Canadian provinces, and England (which is part of the United Kingdom). The name of each subnational entity appears in italics and includes as a suffix the three-letter International Organization for Standardization (ISO) abbreviation for its complete country. Examples include Florida-USA, Ontario-CAN, and England-GBR.
2 Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000, with the scale average set at 500 and the standard deviation set at 100.
3 General/integrated science instructional time is shown for the 27 participating countries that teach science as a general or integrated subject at the eighth grade. For the 15 participating countries that teach the sciences as separate subjects (biology, chemistry, etc.) at the eighth grade, total instructional time across science subjects is shown.
4 The TIMSS average includes only education systems that are members of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IAE), which develops and implements TIMSS at the international level. "Benchmarking" education systems are not members of the IEA and are therefore not included in the average.
5 Data are available for at least 70 percent but less than 85 percent of students.
6 Data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of students.
7 The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 15 percent, though it is less than 25 percent.
8 Nearly satisfied guidelines for sample participation rate after replacement schools were included.
9 National Target Population does not include all of the International Target Population defined by TIMSS.



10 Exclusion rates for Georgia are slightly underestimated as some conflict zones were not covered and no official statistics were available.
11 The TIMSS & PIRLS International Study Center has reservations about the reliability of the average achievement score because the percentage of students with achievement too low for estimation exceeds 25 percent.
12 National Defined Population covers less than 90 percent of National Target Population (but at least 77 percent).
13 National Defined Population covers 90 to 95 percent of National Target Population.
14 Data are for 2007 and are from TIMSS 2007 International Results in Science. Met guidelines for sample participation rates only after replacement schools were included. Data are available for at least 50 percent but less than 70 percent of students.
15 All U.S. state data are based on public school students only.
NOTE: Countries were required to sample students in the grade that corresponded to the end of 8 years of formal schooling, providing that the mean age at the time of testing was at least 13.5 years. Instructional times shown in this table are actual or implemented times (as opposed to intended times prescribed by the curriculum). Principals reported total instructional hours per day and school days per year. Total instructional hours per year were calculated by multiplying the number of school days per year by the number of instructional hours per day. Teachers reported instructional hours per week in mathematics and science. Instructional hours per year in mathematics and science were calculated by dividing weekly instructional hours by the number of school days per week and then multiplying by the number of school days per year.
SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA), Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), 2011; TIMSS 2011 International Results in Mathematics, by Ina V.S. Mullis et al.; and TIMSS 2011 International Results in Science, by Michael O. Martin et al. (This table was prepared December 2012.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education