Skip Navigation
small NCES header image
Table 285. Total and full-time-equivalent (FTE) staff and FTE student/FTE staff ratios in postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV programs, by degree-granting status, control of institution, and primary occupation: Fall 1991, fall 2001, and fall 2011
Degree-granting status, control of institution, and primary occupation Fall 1991 Fall 2001 Fall 2011
Total Full-time-equivalent (FTE) Total Full-time-equivalent (FTE) Total Full-time-equivalent (FTE)
Number Percent Total FTE students per FTE staff Number Per-cent Total FTE students per FTE staff Number Percent Total FTE students per FTE staff
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
All postsecondary institutions 2,591,896 100.0 2,131,463 4.9 3,134,008 100.0 2,476,887 4.9 3,920,836 100.0 3,024,572 5.4
Professional staff 1,633,066 63.0 1,273,795 8.1 2,170,237 69.2 1,628,322 7.4 2,986,568 76.2 2,196,507 7.5
Executive/administrative/managerial 149,630 5.8 146,460 70.7 156,088 5.0 153,008 79.1 248,982 6.4 244,773 66.9
Faculty (instruction/research
     public service)
853,687 32.9 652,252 15.9 1,138,734 36.3 800,870 15.1 1,565,504 39.9 1,046,421 15.6
Graduate assistants 197,813 7.6 81,495 127.1 261,261 8.3 107,999 112.1 355,916 9.1 147,617 110.9
Other professionals 431,936 16.7 393,589 26.3 614,154 19.6 566,446 21.4 816,166 20.8 757,696 21.6
Nonprofessional staff 958,830 37.0 857,668 12.1 963,771 30.8 848,565 14.3 934,268 23.8 828,065 19.8
                         
Degree-granting institutions1                        
Total 2,545,235 100.0 2,094,628 4.9 3,083,353 100.0 2,436,473 4.8 3,840,980 100.0 2,961,224 5.4
Professional staff 1,595,460 62.7 1,244,588 8.3 2,132,150 69.2 1,598,710 7.4 2,923,961 76.1 2,147,560 7.4
Executive/administrative/managerial 144,755 5.7 141,718 73.1 152,038 4.9 149,051 78.9 238,718 6.2 234,895 67.6
Faculty (instruction/research
     public service)
826,252 32.5 632,565 16.4 1,113,183 36.1 783,036 15.0 1,523,615 39.7 1,017,020 15.6
Graduate assistants 197,751 7.8 81,467 127.2 261,136 8.5 107,943 109.0 355,916 9.3 147,617 107.6
Other professionals 426,702 16.8 388,838 26.6 605,793 19.6 558,680 21.1 805,712 21.0 748,028 21.2
Nonprofessional staff 949,775 37.3 850,040 12.2 951,203 30.8 837,763 14.0 917,019 23.9 813,664 19.5
                         
Public 1,783,328 100.0 1,449,398 5.4 2,136,970 100.0 1,660,294 5.2 2,484,820 100.0 1,891,866 5.8
Professional staff 1,133,264 63.5 868,112 9.1 1,477,953 69.2 1,083,384 8.0 1,865,269 75.1 1,348,674 8.1
Executive/administrative/managerial 84,446 4.7 82,835 94.9 82,811 3.9 80,942 106.7 112,473 4.5 110,609 99.0
Faculty (instruction/research
     public service)
580,908 32.6 446,113 17.6 771,124 36.1 539,581 16.0 953,230 38.4 645,542 17.0
Graduate assistants 173,560 9.7 70,707 111.2 219,475 10.3 89,412 96.6 285,905 11.5 116,475 94.0
Other professionals 294,350 16.5 268,458 29.3 404,543 18.9 373,449 23.1 513,661 20.7 476,047 23.0
Nonprofessional staff 650,064 36.5 581,286 13.5 659,017 30.8 576,910 15.0 619,551 24.9 543,192 20.2
                         
Private, nonprofit 742,924 100.0 630,445 3.6 880,586 100.0 728,910 3.6 1,118,046 100.0 908,455 3.7
Professional staff 447,795 60.3 365,487 6.3 598,857 68.0 477,076 5.6 843,740 75.5 658,560 5.0
Executive/administrative/managerial 58,023 7.8 56,634 40.5 63,749 7.2 62,671 42.3 104,010 9.3 102,228 32.5
Faculty (instruction/research
public service)
236,066 31.8 180,348 12.7 306,487 34.8 223,400 11.9 432,733 38.7 306,604 10.8
Graduate assistants 24,054 3.2 10,700 214.6 39,954 4.5 17,772 149.3 69,376 6.2 30,859 107.6
Other professionals 129,652 17.5 117,805 19.5 188,667 21.4 173,233 15.3 237,621 21.3 218,868 15.2
Nonprofessional staff 295,129 39.7 264,958 8.7 281,729 32.0 251,834 10.5 274,306 24.5 249,895 13.3
                         
Private, for-profit 18,983 100.0 14,786 13.6 65,797 100.0 47,270 10.0 238,114 100.0 160,903 10.0
Professional staff 14,401 75.9 10,989 18.4 55,340 84.1 38,251 12.4 214,952 90.3 140,326 11.5
Executive/administrative/managerial 2,286 12.0 2,249 89.7 5,478 8.3 5,438 87.0 22,235 9.3 22,057 73.3
Faculty (instruction/research
     public service)
9,278 48.9 6,104 33.1 35,572 54.1 20,055 23.6 137,652 57.8 64,873 24.9
Graduate assistants 137 0.7 61 3,310.7 1,707 2.6 759 622.8 635 0.3 282 5,721.9
Other professionals 2,700 14.2 2,575 78.4 12,583 19.1 11,998 39.4 54,430 22.9 53,113 30.4
Nonprofessional staff 4,582 24.1 3,797 53.1 10,457 15.9 9,019 52.4 23,162 9.7 20,577 78.5
                         
Non-degree-granting institutions2                        
Total 46,661 100.0 36,834 8.2 50,655 100.0 40,414 8.3 79,856 100.0 63,348 7.6
Professional staff 37,606 80.6 29,207 10.4 38,087 75.2 29,611 11.4 62,607 78.4 48,947 9.8
Executive/administrative/managerial 4,875 10.4 4,742 63.8 4,050 8.0 3,957 85.2 10,264 12.9 9,878 48.8
Faculty (instruction/research
     public service)
27,435 58.8 19,687 15.4 25,551 50.4 17,834 18.9 41,889 52.5 29,401 16.4
Graduate assistants 62 0.1 28 10,964.2 125 0.2 55 6,098.1 0 0.0 0
Other professionals 5,234 11.2 4,750 63.7 8,361 16.5 7,765 43.4 10,454 13.1 9,668 49.9
Nonprofessional staff 9,055 19.4 7,627 39.6 12,568 24.8 10,802 31.2 17,249 21.6 14,400 33.5
†Not applicable.
1Data for 1991 are for institutions of higher education, while later data are for degree-granting institutions. Degree-granting institutions grant associate’s or higher degrees and participate in Title IV federal financial aid programs. The degree-granting classification is very similar to the earlier higher education classification, but it includes more 2-year colleges and excludes a few higher education institutions that did not grant degrees.
2Data are for institutions that did not offer accredited 4-year or 2-year degree programs, but were participating in Title IV federal financial aid programs. Includes some institutions transitioning to higher level program offerings, though still classified at a lower level.
NOTE: Full-time-equivalent staff is the full-time staff, plus the full-time equivalent of the part-time staff. Beginning in 2011, includes institutions with fewer than 15 full-time employees; these institutions did not report staff data prior to 2007. By definition, all graduate assistants are part time. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS), "Fall Enrollment Survey" (IPEDS-EF:91) and "Fall Staff Survey" (IPEDS-S:91); IPEDS Spring 2001 and 2012, Enrollment component; and IPEDS Winter 2001-02 and 2011-12, Human Resources component, Fall Staff section. (This table was prepared January 2013.)
Would you like to help us improve our products and website by taking a short survey?

YES, I would like to take the survey

or

No Thanks

The survey consists of a few short questions and takes less than one minute to complete.
National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education