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Table 138. Mean reading scale scores and specific reading skills of fall 1998 first-time kindergartners, by time of assessment and selected characteristics: Selected years, fall 1998 through spring 2007
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected characteristic Mean reading scale score Percentage of children with specific reading skills, eighth grade, spring 2007
Kindergarten First grade, spring 2000 Third grade, spring 2002 Fifth grade, spring 2004 Eighth grade, spring 2007 Deriving meaning from text Interpreting beyond text Evaluating nonfiction Evaluating complex syntax
Fall 1998 Spring 1999
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Total 36 (0.2) 47 (0.3) 79 (0.6) 128 (0.8) 151 (0.7) 169 (0.8) 83 (0.8) 66 (0.8) 29 (0.9) 6   (0.3)
Sex                                          
Male 35 (0.3) 46 (0.4) 77 (0.9) 126 (1.0) 149 (1.0) 166 (1.2) 80 (1.1) 63 (1.2) 26 (1.3) 5   (0.4)
Female 36 (0.3) 48 (0.5) 81 (0.8) 131 (1.0) 153 (0.9) 172 (0.9) 85 (0.8) 69 (1.0) 31 (1.2) 7   (0.4)
                                           
Race/ethnicity                                          
White 37 (0.3) 48 (0.4) 83 (0.8) 135 (0.9) 158 (0.8) 176 (0.8) 89 (0.7) 74 (0.8) 36 (1.1) 8   (0.4)
Black 32 (0.5) 42 (0.8) 70 (1.3) 114 (2.0) 135 (1.9) 149 (2.4) 66 (2.6) 45 (2.4) 10 (1.6) 2   (0.3)
Hispanic 33 (0.5) 44 (0.8) 72 (1.1) 118 (1.3) 142 (1.1) 160 (1.3) 76 (1.3) 57 (1.4) 18 (1.4) 3   (0.3)
Asian 41 (1.3) 53 (1.7) 90 (2.0) 135 (2.3) 157 (1.8) 178 (2.0) 89 (1.6) 75 (2.2) 41 (3.3) 10   (1.2)
Other1 34 (1.4) 46 (1.7) 76 (2.4) 125 (3.9) 150 (4.3) 167 (3.8) 82 (3.3) 64 (4.1) 25 (3.6) 5   (0.8)
                                           
Parents' highest level
     of education2
                                         
Less than high school 30 (0.5) 39 (0.7) 64 (1.5) 103 (1.7) 128 (1.8) 141 (2.2) 58 (2.5) 37 (2.1) 5 (0.7) 1   (0.1)
High school 32 (0.3) 42 (0.5) 71 (1.0) 118 (1.2) 140 (1.2) 159 (1.3) 75 (1.3) 55 (1.4) 16 (1.3) 3   (0.3)
Some college 35 (0.4) 46 (0.4) 78 (0.8) 128 (1.1) 151 (1.0) 169 (1.1) 84 (1.1) 66 (1.2) 25 (1.1) 4   (0.3)
Bachelor's or higher degree 40 (0.5) 52 (0.7) 89 (1.1) 143 (0.8) 165 (0.8) 183 (0.8) 93 (0.6) 81 (0.8) 49 (1.3) 12   (0.6)
                                           
Primary home language2                                          
English 36 (0.2) 47 (0.3) 80 (0.7) 130 (0.8) 152 (0.7) 170 (0.9) 84 (0.8) 67 (0.9) 30 (0.9) 6   (0.3)
Non-English 33 (0.6) 44 (0.8) 70 (1.1) 113 (1.3) 138 (1.4) 157 (1.6) 73 (1.6) 54 (1.6) 17 (1.4) 4   (0.5)
                                           
Socioeconomic status2                                          
Lowest 20 percent 30 (0.3) 39 (0.5) 64 (1.1) 105 (1.3) 129 (1.3) 145 (1.5) 62 (1.7) 41 (1.5) 8 (0.9) 1   (0.2)
Middle 60 percent 35 (0.3) 46 (0.3) 78 (0.7) 128 (0.8) 151 (0.7) 169 (0.8) 84 (0.8) 66 (0.9) 26 (0.9) 5   (0.3)
Highest 20 percent 41 (0.6) 54 (0.8) 92 (1.4) 145 (0.9) 167 (0.9) 186 (0.8) 95 (0.6) 84 (0.9) 52 (1.5) 14   (0.8)
                                           
Grade level in spring 2007                                          
Eighth grade or above 36 (0.2) 48 (0.4) 82 (0.6) 133 (0.7) 155 (0.7) 173 (0.9) 86 (0.8) 70 (0.9) 32 (1.0) 7   (0.3)
Below eighth grade 30 (0.5) 37 (0.6) 57 (1.4) 100 (1.9) 126 (2.2) 143 (2.5) 58 (2.7) 39 (2.5) 9 (2.0) 2 ! (0.7)
                                           
School type across all waves
     of the study
                                         
Public school all years 35 (0.3) 46 (0.4) 77 (0.6) 126 (0.9) 149 (0.8) 166 (0.9) 80 (0.9) 63 (1.0) 25 (1.0) 5   (0.2)
Private school all years 39 (0.6) 52 (0.9) 88 (1.5) 140 (1.4) 163 (1.0) 184 (1.2) 94 (0.7) 81 (1.4) 47 (2.5) 10   (0.8)
Change in school type
     during study
38 (0.8) 51 (1.1) 84 (1.9) 134 (1.8) 158 (1.4) 177 (1.8) 89 (1.4) 74 (1.9) 38 (2.7) 9   (1.1)
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
1 Includes persons of all other races and two or more races.
2 Status during kindergarten year.
NOTE: Reading scale ranges from 0 to 209. Estimates for each assessment round include all children assessed in English in that round, even if they were not assessed in English in a previous round. In fall 1998, 8 percent of the kindergarten sample was not administered the English battery because of non-passing scores on the OLDS (Oral Language Development Scale) English proficiency assessment. By spring of first grade, this percentage had decreased to 2 percent. In the third grade and subsequent years, the OLDS was not administered and all children were assessed in English. Most of the children were in first grade in 1999-2000, but 5 percent were in kindergarten or other grades (e.g., second grade, ungraded classrooms); most were in third grade in 2001-02, but 11 percent were in second grade or other grades (e.g., fourth grade, ungraded classrooms); most were in fifth grade in 2003-04, but 14 percent were in fourth grade or other grades (e.g., sixth grade, ungraded classrooms); most were in eighth grade in 2006-07, but 14 percent were in seventh grade or other grades (e.g., ninth grade or ungraded classrooms). Data were calculated using C1_7FC0 weight. Estimates differ from previously published figures because the data were recalibrated to represent the kindergarten through eighth-grade reading assessment item pool. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), Longitudinal Kindergarten–Eighth Grade Full Sample Public-Use Data File, fall 1998, spring 1999, spring 2000, spring 2002, spring 2004, and spring 2007. (This table was prepared September 2009.)
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