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Table 135. First-time kindergartners' reading, mathematics, science, cognitive flexibility, and approaches to learning scale scores in fall and spring of the kindergarten year, by selected child, family, and school characteristics: 2010-11
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child, family, or school characteristic Number of children (in thousands) Percentage distribution of children Mean reading score1 Mean mathematics score2 Mean science score, spring 20113 Mean cognitive flexibility score4 Mean approaches to learning score5
Fall 2010 Spring 2011 Fall 2010 Spring 2011 Fall 2010 Spring 2011 Fall 2011 Spring 2011
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Total 3,473   (56.2) 100.0   (†) 34.7 (0.29) 49.5 (0.30) 29.3 (0.27) 42.0 (0.29) 11.4 (0.08) 8.5 (0.06) 9.4 (0.06) 2.9 (0.01) 3.1 (0.01)
Sex of child                                                
Male 1,780   (33.3) 51.2   (0.51) 34.0 (0.31) 48.5 (0.33) 29.4 (0.30) 42.0 (0.32) 11.4 (0.08) 8.3 (0.08) 9.2 (0.06) 2.8 (0.01) 2.9 (0.01)
Female 1,693   (33.2) 48.8   (0.51) 35.4 (0.31) 50.5 (0.31) 29.2 (0.28) 42.0 (0.30) 11.3 (0.08) 8.6 (0.06) 9.5 (0.06) 3.1 (0.01) 3.3 (0.01)
                                                 
Age of child at kindergarten entry, fall 2010                                                
Less than 5 years old 147   (19.8) 4.2   (0.56) 31.0 (0.65) 44.9 (0.67) 24.7 (0.58) 36.9 (0.61) 10.2 (0.18) 7.6 (0.22) 8.8 (0.14) 2.8 (0.04) 3.0 (0.03)
5 years old to 5 1/2 years old 1,479   (32.0) 42.6   (0.51) 32.9 (0.32) 47.9 (0.34) 26.9 (0.30) 39.9 (0.31) 10.9 (0.08) 8.1 (0.09) 9.2 (0.06) 2.9 (0.01) 3.0 (0.01)
More than 5 1/2 years old to 6 years old 1,536   (31.0) 44.2   (0.64) 36.0 (0.32) 50.8 (0.30) 31.1 (0.29) 43.7 (0.30) 11.8 (0.08) 8.7 (0.06) 9.5 (0.06) 3.0 (0.01) 3.2 (0.01)
More than 6 years old 312   (15.3) 9.0   (0.42) 38.3 (0.48) 52.6 (0.49) 34.1 (0.47) 46.3 (0.54) 12.2 (0.15) 8.9 (0.12) 9.6 (0.11) 3.1 (0.02) 3.2 (0.02)
                                                 
Race/ethnicity of child                                                
White 1,844   (73.7) 53.1   (1.76) 36.6 (0.38) 51.6 (0.35) 31.7 (0.32) 44.6 (0.34) 12.4 (0.07) 9.0 (0.06) 9.7 (0.07) 3.0 (0.01) 3.1 (0.01)
Black 458   (47.3) 13.2   (1.33) 32.9 (0.41) 47.1 (0.43) 25.8 (0.30) 37.5 (0.35) 10.0 (0.15) 7.7 (0.16) 8.5 (0.14) 2.8 (0.02) 2.9 (0.02)
Hispanic 822   (46.1) 23.7   (1.36) 30.3 (0.33) 45.4 (0.34) 24.7 (0.30) 37.9 (0.33) 9.7 (0.11) 7.7 (0.09) 8.9 (0.07) 2.9 (0.02) 3.1 (0.02)
Asian 143   (18.0) 4.1   (0.54) 40.5 (0.66) 54.0 (0.63) 34.6 (0.60) 46.0 (0.43) 10.8 (0.10) 8.4 (0.13) 9.4 (0.13) 3.1 (0.04) 3.2 (0.04)
Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander 13   (2.1) 0.4   (0.06) 31.5 (1.69) 48.0 (1.69) 27.4 (1.49) 40.8 (1.85) 9.9 (0.47) 7.4 (0.56) 7.9 (0.50) 2.8 (0.08) 3.0 (0.06)
American Indian/Alaska Native 43 ! (19.1) 1.2 ! (0.55) 31.1 (0.88) 46.0 (0.82) 26.3 (1.23) 40.2 (1.12) 11.5 (0.52) 8.4 (0.44) 9.7 (0.25) 3.0 (0.07) 3.1 (0.05)
Two or more races 148   (8.3) 4.3   (0.23) 36.2 (0.63) 50.9 (0.55) 30.5 (0.55) 43.2 (0.56) 12.0 (0.14) 8.7 (0.11) 9.6 (0.12) 2.9 (0.03) 3.1 (0.03)
                                                 
Primary type of nonparental care arrangement
   prior to kindergarten entry6
                                               
No regular nonparental arrangement 699   (28.7) 20.9   (0.82) 31.7 (0.37) 47.3 (0.39) 26.3 (0.35) 39.8 (0.35) 10.7 (0.09) 8.0 (0.09) 9.1 (0.11) 2.9 (0.02) 3.1 (0.02)
Home-based care                                                
Relative care 499   (17.2) 14.9   (0.46) 32.4 (0.40) 48.2 (0.37) 27.3 (0.37) 40.3 (0.38) 11.0 (0.11) 8.2 (0.10) 9.2 (0.09) 2.9 (0.02) 3.1 (0.02)
Nonrelative care 212   (12.5) 6.3   (0.36) 35.3 (0.60) 50.8 (0.62) 31.3 (0.56) 44.5 (0.63) 12.0 (0.14) 8.8 (0.15) 9.6 (0.11) 3.0 (0.02) 3.2 (0.02)
Center-based care 1,850   (45.8) 55.3   (0.97) 36.4 (0.30) 50.6 (0.32) 30.8 (0.28) 43.1 (0.32) 11.6 (0.08) 8.6 (0.07) 9.5 (0.06) 3.0 (0.01) 3.1 (0.01)
Multiple arrangements 84   (6.5) 2.5   (0.18) 36.6 (0.58) 50.9 (0.72) 31.2 (0.51) 43.3 (0.58) 12.0 (0.19) 9.0 (0.21) 9.6 (0.14) 3.0 (0.04) 3.1 (0.04)
                                                 
Parents' employment status, fall 20107                                                
Two parents                                                
Both employed full time 787   (24.3) 25.3   (0.69) 37.4 (0.28) 52.2 (0.29) 32.1 (0.27) 44.8 (0.31) 12.0 (0.07) 8.9 (0.06) 9.8 (0.06) 3.0 (0.02) 3.2 (0.02)
One employed full time, one part time 505   (20.1) 16.2   (0.49) 37.3 (0.50) 52.1 (0.43) 32.3 (0.41) 44.9 (0.41) 12.2 (0.09) 8.8 (0.09) 9.6 (0.07) 3.1 (0.02) 3.2 (0.02)
One employed full time, one looking for work 130   (7.7) 4.2   (0.24) 32.7 (0.63) 48.2 (0.72) 27.3 (0.56) 40.3 (0.65) 10.9 (0.18) 8.1 (0.15) 9.3 (0.13) 2.9 (0.04) 3.1 (0.04)
One employed full time, one not in labor force 737   (27.3) 23.7   (0.78) 35.6 (0.44) 50.1 (0.43) 30.2 (0.42) 42.9 (0.41) 11.6 (0.10) 8.6 (0.08) 9.5 (0.08) 3.0 (0.02) 3.2 (0.02)
Other combination 203   (12.7) 6.5   (0.37) 31.4 (0.48) 46.4 (0.58) 25.7 (0.40) 38.7 (0.41) 10.5 (0.14) 7.8 (0.14) 9.1 (0.11) 2.9 (0.03) 3.0 (0.03)
Single parent                                                
Employed full time 328   (15.9) 10.5   (0.47) 32.9 (0.45) 47.5 (0.48) 26.9 (0.37) 39.3 (0.48) 10.8 (0.12) 8.3 (0.13) 9.0 (0.10) 2.8 (0.02) 3.0 (0.02)
Employed part time 127   (8.1) 4.1   (0.24) 31.7 (0.51) 46.7 (0.58) 26.5 (0.46) 38.7 (0.55) 10.7 (0.16) 8.1 (0.20) 9.0 (0.16) 2.9 (0.03) 3.0 (0.03)
Looking for work 106   (8.0) 3.4   (0.25) 29.4 (0.64) 44.4 (0.70) 24.0 (0.54) 36.5 (0.42) 10.2 (0.20) 7.8 (0.25) 8.9 (0.23) 2.7 (0.05) 2.9 (0.05)
Not in labor force 123   (9.1) 4.0   (0.29) 30.0 (0.48) 44.3 (0.61) 24.1 (0.48) 36.8 (0.62) 10.2 (0.21) 7.7 (0.18) 8.6 (0.21) 2.7 (0.03) 2.8 (0.04)
No parent in household 69   (4.8) 2.2   (0.15) 30.5 (0.66) 45.5 (0.96) 24.6 (0.65) 37.3 (0.78) 10.7 (0.24) 7.9 (0.19) 8.9 (0.23) 2.7 (0.05) 2.8 (0.05)
                                                 
Parents' highest level of education8                                                
Less than high school 309   (18.0) 8.9   (0.51) 26.3 (0.39) 41.5 (0.41) 21.0 (0.37) 34.3 (0.44) 8.7 (0.11) 7.1 (0.14) 8.4 (0.14) 2.8 (0.02) 3.0 (0.02)
High school completion 707   (20.9) 20.4   (0.56) 29.9 (0.38) 45.2 (0.38) 24.7 (0.33) 37.4 (0.33) 10.2 (0.10) 7.9 (0.09) 9.0 (0.07) 2.8 (0.02) 3.0 (0.02)
Some college/vocational 1,122   (30.0) 32.4   (0.70) 33.7 (0.24) 48.7 (0.30) 28.4 (0.24) 41.1 (0.30) 11.3 (0.07) 8.4 (0.07) 9.3 (0.08) 2.9 (0.01) 3.0 (0.02)
Bachelor's degree 694   (25.2) 20.0   (0.63) 38.4 (0.35) 52.9 (0.33) 33.1 (0.26) 45.8 (0.28) 12.3 (0.07) 8.9 (0.07) 9.7 (0.05) 3.1 (0.01) 3.2 (0.01)
Any graduate education 630   (29.7) 18.2   (0.77) 41.6 (0.43) 55.5 (0.37) 35.7 (0.33) 48.1 (0.34) 12.8 (0.07) 9.3 (0.05) 10.0 (0.06) 3.1 (0.02) 3.3 (0.02)
                                                 
Household type, fall 2010                                                
Two-parent household 2,433   (53.8) 75.6   (0.88) 36.0 (0.32) 50.7 (0.30) 30.7 (0.29) 43.4 (0.31) 11.7 (0.07) 8.6 (0.06) 9.5 (0.05) 3.0 (0.01) 3.2 (0.01)
Mother-only household 667   (29.1) 20.7   (0.82) 31.6 (0.31) 46.2 (0.37) 25.9 (0.30) 38.3 (0.33) 10.5 (0.12) 8.0 (0.10) 8.9 (0.10) 2.8 (0.02) 2.9 (0.02)
Father-only household 49   (3.5) 1.5   (0.10) 31.8 (0.77) 46.7 (0.74) 26.3 (0.69) 39.2 (0.75) 11.5 (0.22) 8.0 (0.34) 8.9 (0.27) 2.8 (0.06) 2.9 (0.04)
Other household type 69   (4.8) 2.2   (0.15) 30.5 (0.66) 45.5 (0.96) 24.6 (0.65) 37.3 (0.78) 10.7 (0.24) 7.9 (0.19) 8.9 (0.23) 2.7 (0.05) 2.8 (0.05)
                                                 
Primary home language                                                
English 2,910   (63.1) 84.0   (0.79) 35.6 (0.29) 50.5 (0.32) 30.2 (0.26) 42.9 (0.30) 11.8 (0.07) 8.7 (0.06) 9.5 (0.06) 2.9 (0.01) 3.1 (0.01)
Non-English 514   (23.6) 14.8   (0.73) 29.4 (0.49) 44.2 (0.49) 24.1 (0.46) 37.3 (0.46) 8.8 (0.11) 7.3 (0.13) 8.6 (0.08) 2.9 (0.02) 3.1 (0.02)
Primary language not identified 39   (4.7) 1.1   (0.14) 31.3 (1.07) 46.8 (1.23) 25.8 (0.95) 38.3 (0.83) 9.6 (0.27) 7.5 (0.27) 8.9 (0.23) 2.8 (0.05) 3.0 (0.06)
                                                 
Poverty status9                                                
Below poverty threshold 707   (31.9) 24.7   (1.06) 29.6 (0.32) 44.4 (0.34) 24.1 (0.33) 36.8 (0.35) 9.8 (0.12) 7.7 (0.10) 8.7 (0.08) 2.8 (0.01) 2.9 (0.02)
100 to 199 percent of poverty threshold 636   (17.6) 22.2   (0.52) 33.4 (0.31) 48.4 (0.40) 27.9 (0.33) 40.6 (0.39) 11.1 (0.09) 8.3 (0.09) 9.3 (0.07) 2.9 (0.02) 3.1 (0.02)
200 percent or more of poverty threshold 1,519   (49.2) 53.1   (1.33) 38.6 (0.34) 53.1 (0.32) 33.3 (0.27) 45.9 (0.30) 12.5 (0.06) 9.0 (0.05) 9.8 (0.06) 3.1 (0.01) 3.2 (0.01)
                                                 
Socioeconomic status10                                                
Lowest 20 percent 645   (27.1) 18.6   (0.76) 27.8 (0.34) 42.8 (0.36) 22.3 (0.33) 35.3 (0.39) 9.3 (0.12) 7.4 (0.11) 8.6 (0.10) 2.8 (0.02) 3.0 (0.02)
Middle 60 percent 2,102   (43.9) 60.7   (0.74) 34.4 (0.25) 49.4 (0.29) 29.1 (0.24) 41.9 (0.27) 11.4 (0.06) 8.5 (0.07) 9.3 (0.07) 2.9 (0.01) 3.1 (0.01)
Highest 20 percent 715   (32.6) 20.6   (0.87) 41.7 (0.43) 55.6 (0.38) 35.9 (0.30) 48.3 (0.31) 12.9 (0.06) 9.3 (0.05) 10.1 (0.05) 3.1 (0.02) 3.3 (0.02)
                                                 
School type                                                
Public 3,074   (53.6) 88.5   (0.23) 34.3 (0.32) 49.1 (0.34) 28.8 (0.30) 41.5 (0.32) 11.2 (0.08) 8.4 (0.07) 9.3 (0.06) 2.9 (0.01) 3.1 (0.01)
Private 399   (8.1) 11.5   (0.23) 37.9 (0.58) 52.1 (0.63) 32.9 (0.45) 45.8 (0.57) 12.3 (0.11) 8.7 (0.11) 9.7 (0.07) 3.1 (0.02) 3.2 (0.02)
†Not applicable.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
1 Reflects performance on questions measuring basic skills (print familiarity, letter recognition, beginning and ending sounds, rhyming words, and word recognition), vocabulary knowledge, and reading comprehension (including locate/recall questions, integrate/interpret questions, and critique/evaluate questions about text the children were asked to read). Actual scores for all kindergartners range from 6 to 83.
2 Reflects performance on questions on number sense, properties, and operations; measurement; geometry and spatial sense; data analysis, statistics, and probability (measured with a set of simple questions assessing children’s ability to read a graph); and prealgebra skills such as identification of patterns. Actual scores for all kindergartners range from 5 to 75.
3 Science was assessed only in the spring of kindergarten. Reflects performance on questions on physical sciences, life sciences, environmental sciences, and scientific inquiry. Actual scores for all kindergartners range from 4 to 18.
4 To measure cognitive flexibility, children were administered the Dimensional Change Card Sort (DCCS) (developed by Philip Zelazo in 2006). Children were asked to sort a series of cards into one of two trays according to different rules (e.g., by color, by shape). Actual scores for all kindergartners range from 0 to 12.
5 The approaches to learning scale is based on teachers' reports on how students rate in seven areas: attentiveness, task persistence, eagerness to learn, learning independence, flexibility, organization, and ability to follow classroom rules. Actual scores for all kindergartners range from 1 to 4, with higher scores indicating that a child exhibits positive learning behaviors more often.
6 The type of nonparental care in which the child spent the most hours. “Multiple arrangements” refers to children who spent an equal amount of time in each of two or more arrangements.
7 Parents who reported working at least 35 hours per week are defined as employed full time, while those who reported working less than 35 hours per week are defined as employed part time. Those neither employed nor looking for work are not in the labor force.
8 Parents’ highest level of education is the highest level of education achieved by either of the parents or guardians in a two-parent household, by the only parent in a single-parent household, or by any guardian in a household with no parents.
9 Poverty status is based on preliminary U.S. Census income thresholds for 2010, which identify incomes determined to meet household needs, given family size and composition. For example, a family of three with one child was below the poverty threshold if its income was less than $17,552 in 2010.
10 Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured by a composite score based on parental education and occupations and household income at the time of data collection.
NOTE: Estimates weighted by W1_2P0. Estimates pertain to a sample of children who were enrolled in kindergarten for the first time in the 2010-11 school year. Two parents may refer to two biological parents, two adoptive parents, or one biological/adoptive parent and one other parent/partner. Single parent refers to one biological or adoptive parent only. In households without parents, the guardian or guardians may be related or unrelated to the child. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding and survey item nonresponse.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 2010–11 (ECLS-K:2011), Preliminary Restricted-Use Data File. (This table was prepared May 2013.)
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