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Table 62. Children of prekindergarten through second-grade age, by enrollment status, selected maternal characteristics, and household income: 1995, 2001, and 2005
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Maternal characteristic and household income 3- to 5-year-olds, not enrolled in school (includes homeschooled children) Enrolled in nursery school or prekindergarten Enrolled in kindergarten Enrolled in first grade Enrolled in second grade
1995 20011 20051 1995 20011 20051 1995 20011 20051 1995 20012 20051 1995 20012 20051
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
Total children (in thousands) 4,586 (102.3) 3,990 (3.2) 4,156 (5.0) 4,642 (105.0) 4,586 (#) 4,926 (#) 4,149 (75.6) 3,831 (#) 3,717 (#) 4,025 (76.7) 4,333 (#) 4,118 (#) 3,777 (72.9) 3,934 (#) 3,900 (#)
                                                             
Percentage distribution                                                            
Mother's highest level
     of education3
100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
Less than high school 16.3 (1.27) 16.4 (1.26) 13.8 (1.24) 6.8 (0.78) 8.0 (1.26) 6.8 (0.76) 13.4 (0.93) 10.7 (1.31) 9.5 (1.16) 12.3 (0.99) 11.7 (1.28) 10.0 (1.20) 15.0 (0.81) 13.5 (1.26) 10.3 (1.21)
High school/GED 41.1 (1.51) 39.7 (1.59) 37.2 (2.18) 30.7 (1.27) 26.1 (1.59) 24.6 (1.34) 36.4 (1.19) 30.3 (1.86) 27.5 (1.92) 34.9 (1.53) 30.3 (2.17) 31.1 (2.13) 35.6 (1.44) 32.8 (2.11) 29.5 (1.77)
Vocational/technical or
     some college
21.3 (1.34) 19.1 (1.30) 21.2 (1.43) 22.7 (1.01) 24.6 (1.30) 19.2 (1.32) 21.7 (1.00) 23.5 (1.84) 20.7 (1.70) 23.6 (1.29) 24.3 (1.87) 19.9 (1.94) 20.6 (0.94) 22.5 (2.18) 19.8 (1.64)
Associate's degree 7.0 (0.79) 5.9 (0.67) 6.8 (0.82) 8.6 (0.72) 7.7 (0.67) 8.4 (0.71) 7.0 (0.68) 7.6 (1.18) 7.7 (0.96) 7.3 (0.81) 7.5 (1.01) 10.3 (1.22) 7.6 (0.60) 7.5 (0.92) 8.0 (0.99)
Bachelor's degree 11.3 (0.86) 14.0 (1.16) 14.9 (1.20) 22.0 (1.10) 22.5 (1.16) 25.5 (1.13) 15.1 (0.98) 20.8 (1.58) 21.3 (1.42) 15.7 (1.02) 19.5 (1.68) 18.0 (1.23) 15.0 (0.94) 15.8 (1.70) 18.7 (1.46)
Graduate/professional degree 3.0 (0.48) 5.0 (0.63) 6.1 (0.73) 9.1 (0.70) 11.1 (0.63) 15.6 (0.94) 6.3 (0.69) 7.1 (1.02) 13.4 (1.43) 6.3 (0.49) 6.7 (1.04) 10.6 (1.22) 6.2 (0.67) 7.9 (1.28) 13.6 (1.62)
                                                             
Mother's employment status3 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
Working 35 hours/week or more 33.4 (1.45) 36.7 (1.55) 33.5 (1.92) 38.5 (1.13) 43.7 (1.18) 39.4 (1.42) 35.9 (1.05) 38.9 (1.99) 36.9 (2.25) 38.5 (1.49) 46.1 (2.33) 40.7 (2.35) 40.5 (1.17) 42.3 (2.30) 41.2 (2.19)
Working less than 35 hours/week 17.8 (1.23) 19.2 (1.30) 21.1 (1.50) 23.7 (1.08) 22.8 (1.00) 24.4 (1.36) 20.8 (1.10) 22.6 (1.57) 21.5 (1.62) 20.8 (1.10) 19.7 (1.59) 20.7 (1.42) 21.4 (1.19) 20.1 (1.60) 22.7 (1.72)
Looking for work 6.8 (0.83) 5.7 (0.75) 8.7 (1.37) 5.8 (0.71) 3.9 (0.55) 4.0 (0.59) 5.6 (0.70) 3.9 (0.87) 7.3 (1.06) 5.0 (0.66) 4.1 (0.89) 5.7 (1.07) 5.4 (0.70) 5.1 (1.09) 4.9 (0.82)
Not in labor force 42.0 (1.68) 38.4 (1.48) 36.8 (1.79) 32.0 (1.28) 29.6 (1.27) 32.2 (1.35) 37.7 (1.18) 34.7 (2.16) 34.3 (1.99) 35.6 (1.57) 30.1 (2.05) 32.8 (1.97) 32.7 (1.30) 32.5 (2.22) 31.2 (1.99)
                                                             
Household income 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†) 100.0 (†)
$10,000 or less 22.7 (1.21) 14.1 (1.07) 10.2 (1.06) 16.1 (1.06) 8.5 (0.81) 7.5 (0.90) 19.4 (1.24) 8.5 (1.22) 8.2 (0.95) 17.4 (1.19) 9.1 (1.18) 7.8 (1.05) 19.5 (1.34) 9.4 (1.07) 7.6 (1.08)
$10,001 to $20,000 15.7 (1.08) 14.5 (1.19) 12.0 (1.14) 10.4 (0.78) 12.7 (0.87) 9.7 (0.75) 12.6 (0.87) 14.1 (1.51) 11.1 (1.05) 13.2 (0.90) 14.0 (1.45) 10.4 (1.15) 11.6 (0.84) 12.4 (1.33) 12.5 (1.39)
$20,001 to $30,000 19.1 (1.12) 15.0 (0.94) 16.9 (1.38) 13.1 (0.81) 11.7 (0.74) 9.9 (1.18) 15.8 (0.76) 16.6 (1.41) 13.0 (1.32) 16.6 (0.91) 16.5 (1.71) 12.3 (1.32) 16.5 (1.05) 14.7 (1.54) 15.4 (1.71)
$30,001 to $40,000 16.2 (1.00) 13.6 (1.07) 15.3 (1.27) 12.4 (0.91) 9.7 (0.79) 9.9 (0.91) 15.1 (1.12) 12.2 (1.29) 11.1 (1.14) 14.1 (0.85) 10.3 (1.16) 10.7 (1.42) 16.1 (0.94) 12.4 (1.33) 10.6 (1.07)
$40,001 to $50,000 11.0 (0.74) 12.0 (1.05) 10.3 (1.12) 11.5 (0.96) 7.5 (0.68) 7.7 (0.64) 11.7 (0.88) 9.1 (1.16) 7.8 (1.07) 11.1 (0.77) 9.7 (1.34) 9.9 (1.14) 11.3 (0.92) 9.2 (1.08) 7.0 (0.87)
$50,001 to $75,000 10.5 (0.69) 18.8 (1.31) 20.0 (1.24) 19.3 (0.93) 21.2 (1.09) 20.8 (0.97) 14.4 (0.82) 20.9 (1.68) 18.4 (1.46) 15.6 (0.84) 18.3 (1.41) 20.4 (1.84) 15.0 (1.00) 19.6 (1.80) 20.3 (1.56)
More than $75,000 4.7 (0.70) 12.1 (0.99) 15.4 (1.30) 17.2 (1.06) 28.7 (1.09) 34.4 (1.13) 11.1 (0.62) 18.6 (1.30) 30.4 (1.54) 12.1 (0.73) 22.1 (1.86) 28.4 (1.56) 10.1 (0.79) 22.3 (1.78) 26.7 (1.83)
†Not applicable.                        
#Rounds to zero.                        
1 Figures exclude children for whom no grade equivalent was available.                        
2 Table includes a very small number of older children enrolled in first and second grade and excludes children for whom no grade equivalent was available.                        
3 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.                        
NOTE: Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.                        
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey and Before- and After-School Programs and Activities Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:1995, 2001, and 2005; and ASPA-NHES:2001 and 2005). (This table was prepared October 2006.)                        
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