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Table 58. Number of children under 6 years old and not yet enrolled in kindergarten, percentage in center-based programs, average weekly hours in nonparental care, and percentage in various types of primary care arrangements, by selected child and family characteristics: 2005
[Standard errors appear in parentheses]
Selected child and family characteristic Number of children, ages 0 to 5 (in thousands) Percent in center-based programs Average hours per week in nonparental care1 Percentage distribution, by type of primary care arrangement
Parental care only Nonparental care
Center-based care Nonrelative care Relative Multiple arrange-ments2
Head Start Other center-based Family child care (in another home) Sitter (in child's home)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11
Total preschool children 20,665 (9.0) 36.1 (0.60) 29.3 (0.37) 39.8 (0.76) 5.1   (0.40) 27.3 (0.49) 8.3   (0.39) 2.3   (0.24) 15.4   (0.66) 1.7   (0.18)
Age                                                  
Under 1 year 3,519 (#) 12.0 (1.13) 30.9 (0.95) 57.7 (1.81) 1.2 ! (0.57) 10.0 (1.07) 9.2   (0.90) 3.2   (0.60) 17.2   (1.42) 1.5 ! (0.47)
1 year old 3,988 (#) 16.9 (1.34) 31.2 (0.81) 48.5 (1.89) 0.7 ! (0.25) 15.0 (1.32) 11.1   (1.09) 3.4   (0.57) 19.1   (1.52) 2.2   (0.50)
2 years old 4,093 (#) 28.7 (1.84) 29.6 (0.75) 44.9 (1.97) 3.5   (0.98) 22.7 (1.66) 10.7   (1.13) 2.4   (0.49) 14.3   (1.17) 1.5   (0.38)
3 years old 4,070 (93.0) 42.5 (1.67) 28.9 (0.64) 34.0 (1.46) 5.3   (0.75) 33.2 (1.64) 7.6   (0.91) 1.7   (0.38) 16.7   (1.35) 1.5   (0.36)
4 years old 3,873 (92.0) 69.2 (1.36) 27.9 (0.67) 20.9 (1.44) 13.2   (1.12) 48.2 (1.29) 4.0   (0.73) 1.2 ! (0.50) 10.4   (1.29) 2.2   (0.44)
5 years old 1,123 (67.3) 68.7 (3.51) 26.9 (1.28) 21.1 (3.17) 10.4   (2.22) 48.4 (3.33) 4.6 ! (1.44)   (†) 13.6   (2.91)   (†)
                                                   
Race/ethnicity                                                  
White 11,488 (99.2) 37.8 (0.87) 27.1 (0.48) 37.7 (0.97) 2.8   (0.35) 30.4 (0.82) 10.1   (0.59) 3.1   (0.35) 14.1   (0.82) 1.8   (0.26)
Black 2,962 (5.2) 43.8 (2.44) 35.9 (0.85) 30.8 (2.67) 13.3   (2.10) 28.8 (2.32) 6.6   (1.05)   (†) 17.8   (2.76) 1.7 ! (0.57)
Hispanic 4,283 (4.1) 25.2 (1.28) 28.8 (0.76) 50.9 (1.43) 6.2   (0.76) 16.8 (1.01) 6.4   (0.80) 1.5   (0.32) 16.7   (0.96) 1.4   (0.35)
Other3 1,933 (100.2) 37.9 (2.72) 31.8 (0.91) 41.5 (2.80) 3.8   (0.94) 29.6 (2.43) 4.8   (0.76) 1.3   (0.35) 17.1   (2.03) 1.9 ! (0.68)
                                                   
Number of parents in the
     household4
                                                 
Two parents 16,275 (114.0) 34.4 (0.70) 27.0 (0.42) 43.3 (0.90) 3.4   (0.33) 27.7 (0.58) 8.6   (0.44) 2.4   (0.24) 12.9   (0.66) 1.7   (0.20)
One parent 4,055 (112.6) 42.2 (1.94) 35.1 (0.77) 26.1 (1.68) 11.1   (1.42) 26.3 (1.61) 7.8   (1.06)   (†) 25.3   (2.28) 1.8   (0.41)
                                                   
Mother in household                                                  
Yes 19,982 (65.8) 35.7 (0.59) 28.9 (0.38) 40.1 (0.78) 4.9   (0.42) 27.3 (0.47) 8.5   (0.40) 2.3   (0.23) 15.2   (0.67) 1.7   (0.18)
No 683 (63.8) 45.2 (4.17) 38.5 (1.87) 30.9 (3.95) 9.9   (2.44) 27.4 (3.62) 3.5 ! (1.26)   (†) 22.5   (3.75) 3.0 ! (1.38)
                                                   
Mother's employment status5                                                  
Currently employed 11,328 (197.3) 43.8 (0.81) 32.3 (0.40) 20.9 (0.97) 5.4   (0.64) 33.1 (0.81) 13.7   (0.68) 3.0   (0.32) 21.4   (0.92) 2.4   (0.29)
35 or more hours/week 7,038 (185.0) 47.5 (1.15) 37.1 (0.42) 14.9 (1.06) 5.7   (0.72) 36.3 (1.14) 16.6   (0.89) 2.4   (0.32) 22.0   (1.28) 2.1   (0.35)
Less than 35 hours/week 4,290 (156.5) 37.7 (1.52) 22.7 (0.64) 30.8 (2.00) 5.1   (0.99) 27.9 (1.43) 8.9   (0.99) 3.9   (0.64) 20.5   (1.38) 2.9   (0.49)
Looking for work 1,416 (118.3) 22.6 (2.91) 26.0 (1.46) 55.0 (4.48) 4.9   (1.11) 17.1 (2.66) 3.7   (1.03)   (†) 16.7 ! (5.17)   (†)
Not in labor force 7,238 (173.7) 25.7 (1.03) 16.7 (0.69) 67.3 (1.13) 4.2   (0.50) 20.2 (0.91) 1.3   (0.26) 1.2   (0.22) 5.2   (0.61) 0.7   (0.19)
                                                   
Mother's highest education5                                                  
Less than high school 1,961 (99.4) 18.1 (1.58) 26.0 (1.58) 64.8 (2.31) 9.9   (1.33) 8.0 (1.03) 4.0   (0.89) #   (†) 12.2   (1.70) 1.0 ! (0.45)
High school/GED 5,590 (182.6) 30.3 (1.49) 29.2 (0.73) 45.4 (1.77) 8.0   (0.96) 20.0 (1.25) 6.3   (0.73) 1.2 ! (0.42) 17.3   (1.32) 1.8   (0.39)
Vocational/technical or                                                  
some college 4,122 (145.7) 34.3 (1.80) 30.1 (1.02) 39.8 (2.17) 4.5   (0.68) 26.3 (1.59) 7.9   (0.94) 1.3 ! (0.42) 18.5   (1.76) 1.8   (0.47)
Associate's degree 1,466 (78.9) 37.1 (2.76) 28.2 (1.04) 31.6 (2.90) 3.5 ! (1.22) 29.9 (2.48) 15.5   (1.96) 1.4 ! (0.56) 16.6   (2.27) 1.5 ! (0.62)
Bachelor's degree 4,593 (123.1) 45.2 (1.55) 27.9 (0.63) 33.2 (1.33) 1.9 ! (0.57) 38.2 (1.39) 9.9   (0.86) 3.6   (0.58) 11.5   (1.01) 1.8   (0.37)
Graduate/professional degree 2,250 (121.2) 47.1 (1.80) 30.0 (0.75) 25.7 (1.89) 1.2 ! (0.41) 40.3 (1.75) 11.6   (1.62) 6.5   (0.99) 13.0   (1.69) 1.7   (0.47)
                                                   
Mother's home language5                                                  
English 16,778 (117.0) 38.1 (0.63) 29.1 (0.41) 36.7 (0.86) 4.5   (0.49) 29.5 (0.53) 9.1   (0.44) 2.5   (0.26) 15.9   (0.77) 1.8   (0.21)
Non-English 3,205 (103.3) 23.5 (1.61) 26.9 (0.97) 57.9 (1.76) 7.1   (1.02) 15.9 (1.25) 5.5   (0.82) 1.0   (0.26) 11.5   (0.99) 1.0 ! (0.31)
                                                   
Mother's age at first birth5                                                  
Less than 18 1,744 (117.6) 27.7 (2.84) 32.8 (1.40) 50.3 (3.11) 10.4   (1.81) 15.4 (2.31) 4.8   (1.03)   (†) 15.9   (1.91) 1.1 ! (0.53)
18 or 19 2,529 (135.1) 28.4 (2.14) 30.6 (1.13) 46.6 (2.81) 7.6   (1.23) 17.6 (1.90) 7.1   (1.33) 0.9 ! (0.34) 19.4   (2.80) 0.8 ! (0.34)
20 or older 15,709 (140.0) 37.8 (0.68) 28.3 (0.43) 37.9 (0.74) 3.9   (0.43) 30.2 (0.65) 9.1   (0.46) 2.5   (0.24) 14.4   (0.70) 1.9   (0.21)
                                                   
Household income                                                  
$15,000 or less 3,142 (79.3) 29.7 (2.19) 31.4 (1.11) 48.2 (2.35) 11.0   (1.61) 16.6 (1.80) 4.7   (0.90) 1.7 ! (0.67) 16.9   (2.31) 0.9 ! (0.35)
$15,001 to $25,000 2,770 (79.2) 29.0 (2.53) 31.0 (1.16) 48.9 (2.44) 8.5   (1.02) 19.2 (2.18) 4.5   (0.70) 1.5 ! (0.63) 15.9   (1.68) 1.5 ! (0.57)
$25,001 to $35,000 2,313 (94.5) 30.8 (2.06) 28.7 (1.01) 44.2 (2.22) 9.0   (1.52) 19.1 (1.89) 6.7   (1.39) 0.7 ! (0.31) 18.4   (1.99) 1.9   (0.52)
$35,001 to $50,000 2,943 (111.8) 28.3 (1.83) 29.5 (1.03) 48.5 (2.41) 4.2   (0.91) 21.2 (1.60) 6.7   (0.97) 0.8 ! (0.29) 16.7   (1.51) 2.0   (0.58)
More than $50,000 9,498 (112.8) 43.9 (0.95) 28.4 (0.42) 30.6 (1.03) 1.5   (0.27) 37.1 (0.88) 11.5   (0.71) 3.6   (0.38) 13.7   (0.84) 1.9   (0.26)
                                                   
Poverty status6                                                  
Above poverty threshold 15,900 (60.9) 38.4 (0.77) 29.0 (0.37) 36.6 (0.87) 3.5   (0.36) 30.6 (0.65) 9.6   (0.51) 2.5   (0.24) 15.3   (0.72) 1.9   (0.22)
At or below poverty threshold 4,766 (60.7) 28.3 (1.80) 30.2 (0.96) 50.5 (1.93) 10.4   (1.15) 16.4 (1.51) 3.9   (0.63) 1.7 ! (0.54) 15.9   (1.75) 1.1   (0.29)
                                                   
Household size                                                  
2 or 3 persons 5,469 (137.6) 38.2 (1.48) 32.5 (0.57) 30.6 (1.27) 5.9   (0.90) 28.9 (1.36) 11.6   (0.94) 2.2   (0.39) 18.5   (1.07) 2.2   (0.41)
4 persons 7,723 (172.4) 39.5 (1.17) 28.4 (0.56) 38.1 (1.26) 4.2   (0.56) 31.9 (0.95) 8.7   (0.65) 2.3   (0.35) 13.3   (1.14) 1.7   (0.33)
5 persons 4,279 (165.9) 34.0 (1.85) 26.8 (0.85) 44.3 (2.14) 5.6   (0.84) 24.2 (1.65) 7.2   (1.01) 3.1   (0.69) 14.4   (1.28) 1.2   (0.31)
6 or more persons 3,194 (138.4) 26.8 (1.90) 27.6 (0.95) 53.7 (2.36) 5.4   (0.90) 17.7 (1.70) 3.3   (0.62) 1.4   (0.35) 16.7   (2.53) 1.8   (0.41)
                                                   
Urbanicity                                                  
Rural 4,328 (5.4) 32.5 (1.93) 29.7 (0.91) 37.5 (2.00) 5.8   (0.82) 22.5 (1.78) 10.6   (1.04) 1.4 ! (0.58) 20.0   (1.68) 2.2   (0.48)
Urban 16,337 (7.5) 37.0 (0.58) 29.1 (0.37) 40.4 (0.88) 4.9   (0.43) 28.6 (0.54) 7.7   (0.44) 2.5   (0.27) 14.2   (0.70) 1.6   (0.18)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
!Interpret data with caution. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is between 30 and 50 percent.
‡Reporting standards not met. The coefficient of variation (CV) for this estimate is 50 percent or greater.
1 Mean hours per week per child, among preschool children enrolled in any type of nonparental care arrangement. For children with more than one arrangement, the hours of each weekly arrangement were summed to calculate the total amount of time in child care per week.
2 Children who spend equal hours per week in multiple nonparental care arrangements.
3 Includes persons of all other races and two or more races.
4 Excludes children living apart from their parents.
5 Excludes children living in households with no mother or female guardian present.
6 Poverty status was determined by household income and number of persons in household.
NOTE: A child's "primary arrangement" was defined as the regular nonparental care arrangement or early childhood education program in which the child spent the most time per week. Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Early Childhood Program Participation Survey of the National Household Education Surveys Program (ECPP-NHES:2005). (This table was prepared October 2006.)
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