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Table 35. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2009–10
Selected characteristic 1869-70 1879-80 1889-90 1899-1900 1909-10 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1979-80 1989-90 1999-2000 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20
Population, pupils, and instructional staff                                                            
Total population (in thousands)1 38,558   50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,878 131,028 149,188 177,830   201,385   225,055   246,819   279,040   295,517   298,380   301,231   304,094   306,772  
5- to 17-year-olds (in thousands)1 11,683   15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 43,881   52,386   48,043   44,947   52,811   53,606   53,819   53,893   53,833   53,890  
5- to 17-year-olds as a percent
   of total population
30.3   30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.7   26.0   21.3   18.2   18.9   18.1   18.0   17.9   17.7   17.6  
                                                             
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary
   schools (in thousands)2
7,562 3 9,867 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,112 36,087   45,550   41,651   40,543   46,857   49,113   49,316   49,293   49,266   49,361  
Prekindergarten and grades 1-8 (in thousands) 7,481 3 9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,833 19,387 27,602   32,513   28,034   29,152   33,486   34,204   34,235   34,205   34,286   34,409  
Grades 9-12 (in thousands) 80 3 110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485   13,037   13,616   11,390   13,371   14,909   15,081   15,087   14,980   14,952  
                                                             
Enrollment as a percent of total population 19.6 3 19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.3   22.6   18.5   16.4   16.8   16.6   16.5   16.4   16.2   16.1  
Enrollment as a percent of 5- to 17-year-olds 64.7 3 65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 82.2   87.0   86.7   90.2   88.7   91.6   91.6   91.5   91.5   91.6  
Percent of total enrollment in high schools                                                            
(grades 9-12) 1.1 3 1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5   28.6   32.7   28.1   28.5   30.4   30.6   30.6   30.4   30.3  
High school graduates (in thousands)   22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627   2,589   2,748   2,320   2,554   2,816   2,892   3,001   3,039   3,128  
                                                             
Average daily attendance (in thousands) 4,077   6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477   41,934   38,289   37,799   43,807   45,932   46,133   46,156   46,173   45,913  
Total number of days attended by pupils                                                            
enrolled (in millions) 539   801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782   7,501   6,835 4   7,858   8,250   8,267   8,261   8,264   8,199  
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily 59.3   62.3 64.1 68.6 72.1 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0   90.4   90.1 4   94.3       93.1      
Average length of school term, in days 132.2   130.3 134.7 144.3 157.5 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0   178.9   178.5 4   179.4   179.6   179.2   179.0   179.0   178.6  
Average number of days attended per pupil 78.4   81.1 86.3 99.0 113.0 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2   161.7   160.8 4   169.2       166.6      
                                                             
Total instructional staff (in thousands)   678 880 912 963 1,457   2,286   2,406   2,986   3,819   4,151   4,187   4,214   4,278   4,279  
Supervisors (in thousands)   7 7 5                    
Principals (in thousands)   14 31 32 43 64   91   106   126   137   156   154   158   160   168  
Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervi-                                                            
sory instructional staff (in thousands)5 201   287 364 423 523 657 843 875 920 1,393   2,195   2,300   2,860   3,682   3,995   4,033   4,056   4,118   4,111  
Males (in thousands) 78   123 126 127 110 93 140 195 196 404 4 711 4 782 4              
Females (in thousands) 123   164 238 296 413 585 703 681 724 989 4 1,484 4 1,518 4              
Percent male 38.7   42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3 29.0 4 32.4 4 34.0 4              
  Amounts in current dollars
Total revenues and expenditures                                                            
Total revenue receipts (in millions)   $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747   $40,267   $96,881   $208,548   $372,944   $520,622   $555,711   $584,684   $592,422   $597,486  
Federal government   2 7 40 156 652   3,220   9,504   12,701   27,098   47,554   47,151   47,788   56,670   75,998  
State governments   160 354 684 2,166 5,768   16,063   45,349   98,239   184,613   242,151   263,609   282,623   276,526   259,810  
Local sources, including intermediate   808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327   20,985   42,029   97,608   161,233   230,917   244,951   254,273   259,226   261,678  
Percentage distribution of revenue receipts                                                            
Federal government   0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4   8.0   9.8   6.1   7.3   9.1   8.5   8.2   9.6   12.7  
State governments   16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1   39.9   46.8   47.1   49.5   46.5   47.4   48.3   46.7   43.5  
Local sources, including intermediate   83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5   52.1   43.4   46.8   43.2   44.4   44.1   43.5   43.8   43.8  
Total expenditures for public schools                                                            
(in millions) $63   $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613   $40,683   $95,962   $212,770   $381,838   $528,269   $562,195   $597,314   $610,326   $607,236  
Current expenditures6   114 180 356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687 12,329 7 34,218 7 86,984 7 188,229 7 323,889 7 449,131 7 476,814 7 506,884 7 518,923 7 525,498 7
Capital outlay8   26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662   4,659   6,506   17,781   43,357   57,375   62,863   66,426   65,890   55,651  
Interest on school debt   18 93 131 101 490   1,171   1,874   3,776   9,135   14,347   14,713   15,695   17,049   17,679  
Other current expenditures9   3 10 13 36 133   636   598 10 2,983   5,457   7,416   7,804   8,308   8,464   8,408  
Percentage distribution of total expenditures                                                            
Current expenditures6   81.3 83.5 83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3 79.0 7 84.1 7 90.6 7 88.5 7 84.8 7 85.0 7 84.8 7 84.9 7 85.0 7 86.5 7
Capital outlay8   18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0   11.5   6.8   8.4   11.4   10.9   11.2   11.1   10.8   9.2  
Interest on school debt   1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1   2.9   2.0   1.8   2.4   2.7   2.6   2.6   2.8   2.9  
Other current expenditures9   0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8   1.6   0.6 10 1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4  
                                                             
Teacher salaries; income and expenditures                                                            
per pupil and per capita                                                            
Annual salary of classroom teachers11 $189   $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $4,995   $8,626   $15,970   $31,367   $41,807   $49,086   $51,052   $52,800   $54,319   $55,202  
Personal income per member of labor force1   1,726 1,320 3,378 5,738   9,640   19,621   36,793   56,762   70,224   74,412   77,795   80,760   76,987  
Total school expenditures per capita of total                                                            
population 2   2 2 3 5 10 19 18 39 88   202   426   862   1,368   1,788   1,884   1,983   2,007   1,979  
National income per capita1   770 626 1,592 2,550   4,412   9,990   19,449   29,953   38,149   40,322   41,152   41,464   39,549  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13   14 17 28 53 87 88 210 375   816   2,272   4,980   7,394   9,778   10,336   10,982   11,239   11,445  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14 16   13 17 20 33 64 108 106 260 471   955   2,491   5,547   8,589   11,338   12,015   12,759   13,033   13,041  
National income per pupil in ADA13   4,416 3,720 10,658 13,964   21,188   58,719   127,000   190,793   245,447   260,796   268,577   273,081   264,251  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in                                                            
ADA6,13,15   0.10 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11   4.56   12.73     41.22       61.36   62.79   64.09  
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13 0.12   0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65   5.34   13.95     47.90       71.30   72.83   73.04  
  Amounts in constant 2011-12 dollars16
Annual salary of classroom teachers11   $10,400 $18,878 $23,465 $28,922 $38,685   $51,965   $46,813   $56,216   $56,198   $56,134   $56,911   $56,756   $57,585   $57,960  
Personal income per member of labor force1   22,951 21,493 32,455 44,439   58,075   57,516   65,940   76,300   80,308   82,952   83,624   85,616   80,834  
Total school expenditures per capita of total                                                            
population   118 253 291 376 680   1,217   1,250   1,545   1,839   2,044   2,100   2,131   2,128   2,078  
National income per capita1    10,243 10,191 15,297 19,751   26,579   29,284   34,857   40,263   43,627   44,949   44,236   43,958   41,526  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13   637 1,153 1,435 2,021 2,905   4,916   6,659   8,925   9,939   11,182   11,522   11,805   11,914   12,017  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14   764 1,442 1,722 2,502 3,648   5,753   7,301   9,941   11,545   12,966   13,394   13,715   13,816   13,692  
National income per pupil in ADA13   58,705 60,578 102,409 108,146   127,642   172,124   227,609   256,466   280,691   290,725   288,702   289,501   277,455  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in                                                            
ADA6,13,15   3.9 6.6 8.1 11.2 16.3   27.5   37.3     51.5       66.0   66.6   67.3  
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13   4.8 8.4 9.8 14.0 20.5   32.2   40.9     59.9       76.6   77.2   76.7  
—Not available.
1 Data on population and labor force are from the Census Bureau, and data on personal income and national income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909-10 to 1959-60, population data are total population, including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population that excludes armed forces overseas.
2 Data for 1869-70 through 1959-60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment.
3 Data for 1870-71.
4 Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.
5 Prior to 1919-20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.
6 Prior to 1919-20, includes interest on school debt.
7 Because of the modification of the scope of "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools," data for 1959-60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.
8 Beginning in 1969-70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.
9 Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959-60, also includes community services, formerly classified with "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools."
10 Excludes community colleges and adult education.
11 Prior to 1959-60, average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Data for 1959-60 and later years are estimated by the National Education Association.
12 Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.
13 "ADA" means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.
14 Expenditure figure is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and interest on school debt.
15 Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.
16 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.  
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959-60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1869-70 through 1909-10; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1919-20 through 1949-50; Statistics of State School Systems, 1959-60 and 1969-70; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1979-80; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, FY 1980; Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Questionnaire," 1999-2000 and 2007-08; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1989-90 through 2010-11, and "National Public Financial Survey," 1989-90 through 2009-10. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, retrieved August 17, 2012, from http://www.census.gov/popest/data/state/asrh/2011/index.html. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, retrieved December 21, 2012, from http://www.bea.gov/iTable/index_nipa.cfm. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, retrieved December 21, 2012, from http://www.bls.gov/webapps/legacy/cpsatab1.htm. (This table was prepared January 2013.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education