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Table 30. Amount and percentage distribution of direct general expenditures of state and local governments, by function: Selected years, 1970-71 through 2009-10
Function 1970-71 1980-81 1990-91 1999-2000 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
  Amount (in millions of current dollars)    
Total direct general expenditures $150,674 $407,449 $908,108 $1,502,768 $1,621,757 $1,732,478 $1,817,513 $1,903,915 $2,007,490   $2,116,464   $2,258,229   $2,400,204   $2,496,365   $2,538,114  
Education and libraries 60,174 147,649 313,744 528,767 571,374 602,954 630,246 664,471 698,106   739,410   785,162   837,675   864,154   871,989  
                                         
Social services and income maintenance 30,376 92,555 214,919 365,226 396,086 433,685 467,625 502,788 536,376   551,721   582,852   618,353   658,547   687,010  
Public welfare 18,226 54,121 130,402 233,350 257,380 281,176 306,463 335,977 360,730   367,395   384,769   404,624   431,942   456,708  
Hospitals and health 11,205 36,101 81,110 127,342 134,010 147,065 154,878 160,943 170,193   178,777   193,072   208,557   221,103   224,352  
Social insurance administration 945 2,276 3,250 4,178 4,359 5,082 5,267 4,364 4,265   4,556   3,981   4,089   4,570   5,157  
Veterans’ services 57 157 357 337 361 1,017 1,504 1,189   992   1,031   1,083   933   794  
                                         
Transportation 19,819 39,231 75,410 118,974 130,422 136,824 142,255 141,070 149,626 1 160,460 1 170,976 1 181,322 1 184,123 1 186,007 1
                                         
Public safety 9,416 31,233 79,932 137,809 146,544 156,702 162,279 166,899 176,758   187,929   203,259   217,201   226,023   225,344  
Police and fire protection 7,531 21,283 46,568 79,900 84,554 90,456 95,215 99,079 104,961   111,971   120,916   129,360   136,411   138,123  
Correction 1,885 7,393 27,356 48,805 52,370 54,615 55,471 56,326 59,102   62,645   68,092   72,904   74,789   72,939  
Protective inspection and regulation 2,557 6,008 9,104 9,620 11,631 11,593 11,494 12,694   13,312   14,250   14,937   14,824   14,282  
                                         
Environment and housing 11,832 35,223 76,167 117,123 124,203 134,033 141,571 146,276 153,398   163,867   179,196   191,972   197,007   198,545  
Natural resources, parks, and                                        
recreation 5,191 13,239 28,505 45,272 50,082 52,101 54,573 53,748 55,444   59,939   66,243   70,562   72,088   69,391  
Housing and community development 2,554 7,086 16,648 26,590 27,402 31,623 35,275 37,236 40,014   42,014   45,937   50,974   49,239   53,492  
Sewerage and sanitation 4,087 14,898 31,014 45,261 46,718 50,309 51,723 55,292 57,940   61,914   67,016   70,436   75,680   75,662  
                                         
Governmental administration 6,703 20,001 48,461 81,659 85,910 92,779 98,658 100,067 105,546   110,407   119,396   126,997   128,369   126,847  
Financial administration 2,271 7,230 16,995 29,300 30,007 32,660 34,911 34,675 36,695   37,666   39,631   40,995   40,183   39,978  
General control2 4,432 12,771 31,466 52,360 55,903 60,119 63,747 65,392 68,851   72,741   79,765   86,003   88,186   86,869  
                                         
Interest on general debt 5,089 17,131 52,234 69,814 73,836 75,287 77,277 81,812 81,122   86,001   93,586   100,055   104,521   105,721  
                                         
Other direct general expenditures,                                        
not elsewhere classified 7,265 24,426 47,242 83,395 93,382 100,215 97,602 100,533 106,559   116,670   123,802   126,630   133,622   136,650  
  Percentage distribution    
Total direct general expenditures 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0   100.0  
Education and libraries 39.9 36.2 34.5 35.2 35.2 34.8 34.7 34.9 34.8   34.9   34.8   34.9   34.6   34.4  
                                         
Social services and income maintenance 20.2 22.7 23.7 24.3 24.4 25.0 25.7 26.4 26.7   26.1   25.8   25.8   26.4   27.1  
Public welfare 12.1 13.3 14.4 15.5 15.9 16.2 16.9 17.6 18.0   17.4   17.0   16.9   17.3   18.0  
Hospitals and health 7.4 8.9 8.9 8.5 8.3 8.5 8.5 8.5 8.5   8.4   8.5   8.7   8.9   8.8  
Social insurance administration 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2   0.2  
Veterans’ services # # # # # 0.1 0.1 0.1   #   #   #   #   #  
                                         
Transportation 13.2 9.6 8.3 7.9 8.0 7.9 7.8 7.4 7.5 1 7.6 1 7.6 1 7.6 1 7.4 1 7.3 1
                                         
Public safety 6.2 7.7 8.8 9.2 9.0 9.0 8.9 8.8 8.8   8.9   9.0   9.0   9.1   8.9  
Police and fire protection 5.0 5.2 5.1 5.3 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2 5.2   5.3   5.4   5.4   5.5   5.4  
Correction 1.3 1.8 3.0 3.2 3.2 3.2 3.1 3.0 2.9   3.0   3.0   3.0   3.0   2.9  
Protective inspection and regulation 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6   0.6   0.6   0.6   0.6   0.6  
                                         
Environment and housing 7.9 8.6 8.4 7.8 7.7 7.7 7.8 7.7 7.6   7.7   7.9   8.0   7.9   7.8  
Natural resources, parks, and                                        
recreation 3.4 3.2 3.1 3.0 3.1 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.8   2.8   2.9   2.9   2.9   2.7  
Housing and community development 1.7 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.8 1.9 2.0 2.0   2.0   2.0   2.1   2.0   2.1  
Sewerage and sanitation 2.7 3.7 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.9 2.8 2.9 2.9   2.9   3.0   2.9   3.0   3.0  
                                         
Governmental administration 4.4 4.9 5.3 5.4 5.3 5.4 5.4 5.3 5.3   5.2   5.3   5.3   5.1   5.0  
Financial administration 1.5 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.9 1.8 1.8   1.8   1.8   1.7   1.6   1.6  
General control2 2.9 3.1 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.5 3.5 3.4 3.4   3.4   3.5   3.6   3.5   3.4  
                                         
Interest on general debt 3.4 4.2 5.8 4.6 4.6 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.0   4.1   4.1   4.2   4.2   4.2  
                                         
Other direct general expenditures,                                        
not elsewhere classified 4.8 6.0 5.2 5.5 5.8 5.8 5.4 5.3 5.3   5.5   5.5   5.3   5.4   5.4  
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
1 No longer includes transit subsidies.
2 Includes judicial and legal expenditures and expenditures on general public buildings and other governmental administration.
NOTE: Excludes monies paid by states to the federal government. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Governmental Finances. Retrieved October 11, 2012, from http://www.census.gov/govs/estimate/. (This table was prepared October 2012.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
U.S. Department of Education