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Table 419. Average science scores and percentage distribution of 15-year-old students scoring at each science literacy proficiency level, by country: 2009
Country or other jurisdiction Average science score Percentage distribution at levels of science proficiency1
Below
Level 1
Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
OECD total2 496 (1.2) 5.4 (0.19) 14.6 (0.32) 24.8 (0.28) 27.1 (0.25) 19.6 (0.32) 7.3 (0.25) 1.1 (0.10)
OECD average3 501 (0.5) 5.0 (0.10) 13.0 (0.14) 24.4 (0.16) 28.6 (0.17) 20.6 (0.16) 7.4 (0.10) 1.1 (0.04)
                                 
Australia 527 (2.5) 3.4 (0.27) 9.2 (0.48) 20.0 (0.59) 28.4 (0.65) 24.5 (0.66) 11.5 (0.58) 3.1 (0.50)
Austria 494 (3.2) 6.7 (0.83) 14.3 (0.99) 23.8 (1.00) 26.6 (1.04) 20.6 (1.03) 7.1 (0.61) 1.0 (0.19)
Belgium 507 (2.5) 6.4 (0.57) 11.7 (0.61) 20.7 (0.65) 27.2 (0.76) 24.0 (0.82) 9.0 (0.59) 1.1 (0.19)
Canada 529 (1.6) 2.0 (0.21) 7.5 (0.37) 20.9 (0.49) 31.2 (0.62) 26.2 (0.65) 10.5 (0.45) 1.6 (0.15)
Chile 447 (2.9) 8.4 (0.83) 23.9 (1.07) 35.2 (0.94) 23.6 (1.07) 7.9 (0.69) 1.1 (0.22) # (†)
                                 
Czech Republic 500 (3.0) 4.7 (0.57) 12.6 (0.90) 25.6 (0.97) 28.8 (1.25) 19.9 (0.87) 7.2 (0.58) 1.2 (0.22)
Denmark 499 (2.5) 4.1 (0.42) 12.5 (0.65) 26.0 (0.77) 30.6 (1.07) 20.1 (0.85) 5.9 (0.55) 0.9 (0.23)
Estonia 528 (2.7) 1.3 (0.31) 7.0 (0.72) 21.3 (1.07) 34.3 (1.10) 25.7 (1.07) 9.0 (0.63) 1.4 (0.26)
Finland 554 (2.3) 1.1 (0.19) 4.9 (0.41) 15.3 (0.73) 28.8 (0.95) 31.2 (1.08) 15.4 (0.74) 3.3 (0.34)
France 498 (3.6) 7.1 (0.82) 12.2 (0.83) 22.1 (1.25) 28.8 (1.32) 21.7 (1.02) 7.3 (0.70) 0.8 (0.22)
                                 
Germany 520 (2.8) 4.1 (0.51) 10.7 (0.81) 20.1 (0.86) 27.3 (1.08) 25.0 (1.18) 10.9 (0.68) 1.9 (0.29)
Greece 470 (4.0) 7.2 (1.07) 18.1 (1.04) 29.8 (0.96) 27.9 (1.20) 14.0 (0.95) 2.8 (0.31) 0.3 (0.11)
Hungary 503 (3.1) 3.8 (0.93) 10.4 (0.86) 25.5 (1.13) 33.2 (1.32) 21.8 (1.19) 5.1 (0.55) 0.3 (0.13)
Iceland 496 (1.4) 5.5 (0.48) 12.5 (0.63) 25.8 (0.75) 30.4 (0.94) 18.8 (0.84) 6.1 (0.43) 0.8 (0.19)
Ireland 508 (3.3) 4.4 (0.69) 10.7 (1.01) 23.3 (1.17) 29.9 (0.99) 22.9 (0.95) 7.5 (0.68) 1.2 (0.23)
                                 
Israel 455 (3.1) 13.9 (1.06) 19.2 (0.72) 26.0 (1.04) 24.1 (0.76) 12.8 (0.72) 3.5 (0.36) 0.5 (0.13)
Italy 489 (1.8) 6.1 (0.39) 14.5 (0.50) 25.5 (0.63) 29.5 (0.54) 18.6 (0.53) 5.3 (0.29) 0.5 (0.07)
Japan 539 (3.4) 3.2 (0.52) 7.5 (0.68) 16.3 (0.87) 26.6 (0.83) 29.5 (0.98) 14.4 (0.73) 2.6 (0.39)
Korea, Republic of 538 (3.4) 1.1 (0.32) 5.2 (0.68) 18.5 (1.15) 33.1 (1.13) 30.4 (1.14) 10.5 (0.90) 1.1 (0.31)
Luxembourg 484 (1.2) 8.4 (0.52) 15.3 (0.88) 24.3 (0.69) 27.1 (0.87) 18.2 (0.91) 6.0 (0.49) 0.7 (0.12)
                                 
Mexico 416 (1.8) 14.5 (0.60) 32.8 (0.64) 33.6 (0.60) 15.8 (0.61) 3.1 (0.27) 0.2 (0.05) # (†)
Netherlands 522 (5.4) 2.6 (0.53) 10.6 (1.33) 21.8 (1.53) 26.9 (1.07) 25.3 (1.69) 11.2 (1.10) 1.5 (0.30)
New Zealand 532 (2.6) 4.0 (0.53) 9.4 (0.52) 18.1 (1.01) 25.8 (0.88) 25.1 (0.74) 14.0 (0.72) 3.6 (0.36)
Norway 500 (2.6) 3.8 (0.48) 11.9 (0.92) 26.6 (0.95) 31.1 (0.71) 20.1 (0.82) 5.9 (0.65) 0.5 (0.16)
Poland 508 (2.4) 2.3 (0.33) 10.9 (0.69) 26.1 (0.80) 32.1 (0.81) 21.2 (0.97) 6.8 (0.49) 0.8 (0.19)
                                 
Portugal 493 (2.9) 3.0 (0.35) 13.5 (0.92) 28.9 (1.08) 32.3 (1.08) 18.1 (1.00) 3.9 (0.51) 0.3 (0.13)
Slovak Republic 490 (3.0) 5.0 (0.58) 14.2 (0.89) 27.6 (1.03) 29.2 (0.95) 17.7 (0.85) 5.6 (0.53) 0.7 (0.20)
Slovenia 512 (1.1) 3.1 (0.22) 11.7 (0.45) 23.7 (0.66) 28.7 (1.05) 23.0 (0.72) 8.7 (0.61) 1.2 (0.27)
Spain 488 (2.1) 4.6 (0.37) 13.6 (0.75) 27.9 (0.67) 32.3 (0.69) 17.6 (0.57) 3.7 (0.26) 0.2 (0.05)
Sweden 495 (2.7) 5.8 (0.51) 13.4 (0.75) 25.6 (0.80) 28.4 (0.84) 18.7 (0.86) 7.1 (0.56) 1.0 (0.22)
                                 
Switzerland 517 (2.8) 3.5 (0.31) 10.6 (0.58) 21.3 (1.09) 29.8 (1.02) 24.1 (1.03) 9.2 (0.73) 1.5 (0.23)
Turkey 454 (3.6) 6.9 (0.81) 23.0 (1.13) 34.5 (1.16) 25.2 (1.24) 9.1 (1.13) 1.1 (0.29) # (†)
United Kingdom 514 (2.5) 3.8 (0.34) 11.2 (0.68) 22.7 (0.73) 28.8 (0.97) 22.2 (0.83) 9.5 (0.61) 1.9 (0.25)
United States. 502 (3.6) 4.2 (0.54) 13.9 (0.93) 25.0 (0.87) 27.5 (0.80) 20.1 (0.94) 7.9 (0.78) 1.3 (0.28)
                                 
Reporting partner countries                                
Albania 391 (3.9) 26.3 (1.55) 31.0 (1.28) 27.7 (1.24) 12.9 (1.34) 2.0 (0.38) 0.1 (0.06) (†)
Argentina 401 (4.6) 25.2 (1.70) 27.2 (1.37) 26.7 (1.20) 15.4 (1.12) 4.8 (0.69) 0.6 (0.18) # (†)
Azerbaijan 373 (3.1) 31.5 (1.68) 38.5 (1.13) 22.4 (1.07) 6.7 (0.76) 0.8 (0.22) # (†) (†)
Brazil 405 (2.4) 19.7 (0.90) 34.5 (0.99) 28.8 (0.90) 12.6 (0.81) 3.9 (0.38) 0.6 (0.11) # (†)
Bulgaria 439 (5.9) 16.5 (1.63) 22.3 (1.55) 26.6 (1.31) 21.0 (1.36) 10.9 (1.01) 2.4 (0.48) 0.2 (0.12)
                                 
Colombia 402 (3.6) 20.4 (1.81) 33.7 (1.23) 30.2 (1.40) 13.1 (1.04) 2.5 (0.34) 0.1 (0.05) # (†)
Croatia 486 (2.8) 3.6 (0.47) 14.9 (0.99) 30.0 (1.07) 31.1 (1.03) 16.7 (0.98) 3.5 (0.57) 0.2 (0.10)
Dubai (United Arab Emirates) 466 (1.2) 11.0 (0.47) 19.5 (0.57) 26.0 (0.78) 22.9 (0.73) 14.9 (0.59) 4.8 (0.35) 0.8 (0.21)
Hong Kong-China 549 (2.8) 1.4 (0.31) 5.2 (0.61) 15.1 (0.73) 29.4 (0.99) 32.7 (0.99) 14.2 (0.94) 2.0 (0.30)
Indonesia 383 (3.8) 24.6 (1.77) 41.0 (1.54) 27.0 (1.55) 6.9 (1.01) 0.5 (0.22) # (†) (†)
                                 
Jordan 415 (3.5) 18.0 (1.20) 27.6 (1.13) 32.2 (1.21) 17.6 (1.12) 4.1 (0.51) 0.5 (0.18) # (†)
Kazakhstan 400 (3.1) 22.4 (1.31) 33.0 (1.08) 27.9 (1.14) 12.8 (0.82) 3.6 (0.62) 0.3 (0.16) # (†)
Kyrgyzstan 330 (2.9) 52.9 (1.32) 29.0 (0.94) 13.3 (0.76) 4.0 (0.54) 0.7 (0.20) # (†) (†)
Latvia 494 (3.1) 2.3 (0.56) 12.5 (1.00) 29.1 (1.07) 35.5 (1.16) 17.6 (1.06) 3.0 (0.47) 0.1 (0.08)
Liechtenstein 520 (3.4) 1.4 (0.74) 9.9 (1.94) 23.8 (3.07) 29.8 (3.67) 25.4 (2.67) 9.0 (1.74) 0.7 (0.67)
                                 
Lithuania 491 (2.9) 3.5 (0.65) 13.5 (0.77) 28.9 (1.02) 32.4 (1.18) 17.0 (0.84) 4.3 (0.41) 0.4 (0.13)
Macao-China 511 (1.0) 1.5 (0.21) 8.1 (0.36) 25.2 (0.77) 37.8 (0.74) 22.7 (0.98) 4.5 (0.47) 0.2 (0.08)
Montenegro 401 (2.0) 22.2 (1.01) 31.4 (0.98) 29.4 (1.04) 13.6 (0.79) 3.1 (0.39) 0.2 (0.15) (†)
Panama 376 (5.7) 32.8 (2.74) 32.4 (1.96) 23.2 (1.93) 9.3 (1.19) 2.2 (0.46) 0.2 (0.12) (†)
Peru 369 (3.5) 35.3 (1.50) 33.0 (1.29) 21.7 (1.21) 8.0 (0.79) 1.8 (0.37) 0.2 (0.12) # (†)
                                 
Qatar 379 (0.9) 36.4 (0.58) 28.8 (0.54) 18.8 (0.56) 9.8 (0.30) 4.8 (0.23) 1.3 (0.14) 0.1 (0.05)
Romania 428 (3.4) 11.9 (1.13) 29.5 (1.57) 34.1 (1.73) 19.7 (1.18) 4.4 (0.59) 0.4 (0.12) # (†)
Russian Federation 478 (3.3) 5.5 (0.67) 16.5 (1.06) 30.7 (1.14) 29.0 (1.15) 13.9 (0.91) 3.9 (0.50) 0.4 (0.17)
Serbia 443 (2.4) 10.1 (0.82) 24.3 (0.96) 33.9 (1.17) 23.6 (0.75) 7.1 (0.57) 1.0 (0.18) # (†)
Shanghai-China 575 (2.3) 0.4 (0.11) 2.8 (0.36) 10.5 (0.66) 26.0 (0.99) 36.1 (1.12) 20.4 (0.96) 3.9 (0.45)
                                 
Singapore 542 (1.4) 2.8 (0.24) 8.7 (0.52) 17.5 (0.58) 25.4 (0.83) 25.7 (0.70) 15.3 (0.67) 4.6 (0.50)
Chinese Taipei 520 (2.6) 2.2 (0.34) 8.9 (0.60) 21.1 (0.91) 33.3 (1.04) 25.8 (1.10) 8.0 (0.74) 0.8 (0.22)
Thailand 425 (3.0) 12.2 (1.10) 30.6 (1.01) 34.7 (1.34) 17.5 (0.95) 4.4 (0.51) 0.6 (0.27) # (†)
Trinidad and Tobago 410 (1.2) 25.1 (0.87) 24.9 (0.92) 25.2 (0.88) 16.0 (0.79) 7.1 (0.40) 1.8 (0.23) 0.1 (0.07)
Tunisia 401 (2.7) 21.3 (1.17) 32.4 (1.08) 30.9 (1.00) 13.0 (0.85) 2.2 (0.43) 0.2 (0.12) # (†)
Uruguay 427 (2.6) 17.0 (0.94) 25.6 (0.86) 29.3 (1.01) 19.5 (1.02) 7.1 (0.51) 1.4 (0.22) 0.1 (0.04)
†Not applicable.
#Rounds to zero.
‡Reporting standards not met.
1 Level 1: Able to present scientific explanations that are obvious and that follow explicitly from given evidence. Level 2: Able to provide possible explanations in familiar contexts, draw conclusions based on simple investigations, and make literal interpretations of the results of scientific inquiry or technological problem solving. Level 3: Able to select facts to explain phenomena and apply simple models or inquiry strategies, develop short statements using facts, and make decisions based on scientific knowledge. Level 4: Able to select and integrate explanations from different disciplines of science or technology, link those explanations directly to aspects of life situations, and communicate decisions using scientific knowledge and evidence. Level 5: Able to apply scientific concepts and knowledge to many complex life situations, select and evaluate appropriate scientific evidence, bring critical insights to situations, and construct explanations based on evidence and arguments based on critical analysis. Level 6: Able to consistently explain and apply scientific knowledge in a variety of complex life situations; use evidence from different sources to justify decisions; clearly and consistently demonstrate advanced scientific thinking and reasoning; and develop arguments in support of recommendations and decisions that center on personal, social, or global situations.
2 Illustrates how a country compares with the OECD area as a whole. Computed by taking the OECD countries as a single entity to which each country contributes in proportion to the number of 15-year-olds enrolled in its schools.
3 Refers to the mean of the data values for all OECD countries, to which each country contributes equally, regardless of the absolute size of the student population of each country.
NOTE: PISA scores are reported on a scale from 0 to 1,000. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA), 2009, PISA 2009 Results: What Students Know and Can Do—Student Performance in Reading, Mathematics and Science (Volume I). (This table was prepared December 2010.)

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