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Table 35. Historical summary of public elementary and secondary school statistics: Selected years, 1869–70 through 2008–09
Selected characteristic 1869-70 1879-80 1889-90 1899-1900 1909-10 1919-20 1929-30 1939-40 1949-50 1959-60 1969-70 1979-80 1989-90 1999-2000 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19
Population, pupils, and instructional staff                                                        
Total population (in thousands)1  38,558   50,156 62,622 75,995 90,490 104,514 121,878 131,028 149,188 177,830   201,385   225,055   246,819   279,040   295,517   298,380   301,231   304,094  
5- to 17-year-olds (in thousands)1  11,683   15,066 18,473 21,573 24,011 27,571 31,414 30,151 30,223 43,881   52,386   48,043   44,947   52,811   53,606   53,819   53,893   53,833  
5- to 17-year-olds as a percent
    of total population
30.3   30.0 29.5 28.4 26.5 26.4 25.8 23.0 20.3 24.7   26.0   21.3   18.2   18.9   18.1   18.0   17.9   17.7  
                                                         
Total enrollment in elementary and secondary
   schools (in thousands)2 
7,562 3  9,867 12,723 15,503 17,814 21,578 25,678 25,434 25,112 36,087   45,550   41,651   40,543   46,857   49,113   49,316   49,293   49,266  
Prekindergarten and grades 1-8 (in thousands) 7,481 3  9,757 12,520 14,984 16,899 19,378 21,279 18,833 19,387 27,602   32,513   28,034   29,152   33,486   34,204   34,235   34,205   34,286  
Grades 9-12 (in thousands) 80 3  110 203 519 915 2,200 4,399 6,601 5,725 8,485   13,037   13,616   11,390   13,371   14,909   15,081   15,087   14,980  
                                                         
Enrollment as a percent of total population 19.6 3  19.7 20.3 20.4 19.7 20.6 21.1 19.4 16.8 20.3   22.6   18.5   16.4   16.8   16.6   16.5   16.4   16.2  
Enrollment as a percent of 5- to 17-year-olds 64.7 3  65.5 68.9 71.9 74.2 78.3 81.7 84.4 83.1 82.2   87.0   86.7   90.2   88.7   91.6   91.6   91.5   91.5  
Percent of total enrollment in high schools
   (grades 9-12)
1.1 3  1.1 1.6 3.3 5.1 10.2 17.1 26.0 22.8 23.5   28.6   32.7   28.1   28.5   30.4   30.6   30.6   30.4  
High school graduates (in thousands)   22 62 111 231 592 1,143 1,063 1,627   2,589   2,748   2,320   2,554   2,816   2,892   3,001   3,039  
                                                         
Average daily attendance (in thousands) 4,077   6,144 8,154 10,633 12,827 16,150 21,265 22,042 22,284 32,477   41,934   38,289   37,799   43,807   45,932   46,133   46,156   46,213  
Total number of days attended by pupils
   enrolled (in millions)
539   801 1,098 1,535 2,011 2,615 3,673 3,858 3,964 5,782   7,501   6,835 4    7,858   8,250   8,267   8,261   8,271  
Percent of enrolled pupils attending daily 59.3   62.3 64.1 68.6 72.1 74.8 82.8 86.7 88.7 90.0   90.4   90.1 4    94.3       93.1    
Average length of school term, in days 132.2   130.3 134.7 144.3 157.5 161.9 172.7 175.0 177.9 178.0   178.9   178.5 4    179.4   179.6   179.2   179.0   179.0  
Average number of days attended per pupil 78.4   81.1 86.3 99.0 113.0 121.2 143.0 151.7 157.9 160.2   161.7   160.8 4    169.2       166.6    
                                                         
Total instructional staff (in thousands)   678 880 912 963 1,457   2,286   2,406   2,986   3,819   4,151   4,187   4,214   4,278  
Supervisors (in thousands)   7 7 5                  
Principals (in thousands)   14 31 32 43 64   91   106   126   137   156   154   158   160  
Teachers, librarians, and other nonsupervi-
    sory instructional staff (in thousands)5 
201   287 364 423 523 657 843 875 920 1,393   2,195   2,300   2,860   3,682   3,995   4,033   4,056   4,118  
Males (in thousands) 78   123 126 127 110 93 140 195 196 404 4  711 4  782 4             
Females (in thousands) 123   164 238 296 413 585 703 681 724 989 4  1,484 4  1,518 4             
Percent male 38.7   42.8 34.5 29.9 21.1 14.1 16.6 22.2 21.3 29.0 4  32.4 4  34.0 4             
  Amounts in current dollars
Total revenues and expenditures                                                        
Total revenue receipts (in millions)   $143 $220 $433 $970 $2,089 $2,261 $5,437 $14,747   $40,267   $96,881   $208,548   $372,944   $520,622   $555,711   $584,684   $593,061  
Federal government   2 7 40 156 652   3,220   9,504   12,701   27,098   47,554   47,151   47,788   56,731  
State governments   160 354 684 2,166 5,768   16,063   45,349   98,239   184,613   242,151   263,609   282,623   277,080  
Local sources, including intermediate   808 1,728 1,536 3,116 8,327   20,985   42,029   97,608   161,233   230,917   244,951   254,273   259,251  
Percentage distribution of revenue receipts                                                        
Federal government   0.3 0.4 1.8 2.9 4.4   8.0   9.8   6.1   7.3   9.1   8.5   8.2   9.6  
State governments   16.5 16.9 30.3 39.8 39.1   39.9   46.8   47.1   49.5   46.5   47.4   48.3   46.7  
Local sources, including intermediate   83.2 82.7 68.0 57.3 56.5   52.1   43.4   46.8   43.2   44.4   44.1   43.5   43.7  
Total expenditures for public schools                                                        
(in millions) $63   $78 $141 $215 $426 $1,036 $2,317 $2,344 $5,838 $15,613   $40,683   $95,962   $212,770   $381,838   $528,269   $562,195   $597,314   $610,110  
Current expenditures6    114 180 356 861 1,844 1,942 4,687 12,329 7  34,218 7  86,984 7  188,229 7  323,889 7  449,131 7  476,814 7  506,884 7  518,997 7 
Capital outlay8    26 35 70 154 371 258 1,014 2,662   4,659   6,506   17,781   43,357   57,375   62,863   66,426   65,882  
Interest on school debt   18 93 131 101 490   1,171   1,874   3,776   9,135   14,347   14,713   15,695   16,691  
Other current expenditures9   3 10 13 36 133   636   598 10  2,983   5,457   7,416   7,804   8,308   8,539  
Percentage distribution of total expenditures                                                        
Current expenditures6    81.3 83.5 83.6 83.1 79.6 82.8 80.3 79.0 7  84.1 7  90.6 7  88.5 7  84.8 7  85.0 7  84.8 7  84.9 7  85.1 7 
Capital outlay8    18.7 16.5 16.4 14.8 16.0 11.0 17.4 17.0   11.5   6.8   8.4   11.4   10.9   11.2   11.1   10.8  
Interest on school debt   1.8 4.0 5.6 1.7 3.1   2.9   2.0   1.8   2.4   2.7   2.6   2.6   2.7  
Other current expenditures9   0.3 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.8   1.6   0.6 10  1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4   1.4  
                                                         
Teacher salaries; income and expenditures
   per pupil and per capita
                                                       
Annual salary of classroom teachers11  $189   $195 $252 $325 $485 $871 $1,420 $1,441 $3,010 $4,995   $8,626   $15,970   $31,367   $41,807   $49,086   $51,052   $52,800   $54,319  
Personal income per member of labor force1    1,726 1,320 3,378 5,738   9,640   19,621   36,793   56,762   70,224   74,412   77,795   77,397  
Total school expenditures per capita of total
   population
2   2 2 3 5 10 19 18 39 88   202   426   862   1,368   1,788   1,884   1,983   2,006  
National income per capita1    770 626 1,592 2,550   4,412   9,990   19,449   29,953   38,149   40,322   41,152   39,947  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13    14 17 28 53 87 88 210 375   816   2,272   4,980   7,394   9,778   10,336   10,982   11,231  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14 16   13 17 20 33 64 108 106 260 471   955   2,491   5,547   8,589   11,338   12,015   12,759   13,015  
National income per pupil in ADA13    4,416 3,720 10,658 13,964   21,188   58,719   127,000   190,793   245,447   260,796   268,577   262,862  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in
   ADA6,13,15 
  0.10 0.12 0.18 0.33 0.50 0.50 1.17 2.11   4.56   12.73     41.22       61.36   62.75  
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13 0.12   0.10 0.13 0.14 0.21 0.40 0.63 0.60 1.46 2.65   5.34   13.95     47.90       71.30   72.73  
  Amounts in constant 2009-10 dollars16 
Annual salary of classroom teachers11    $9,905 $17,980 $22,348 $27,546 $36,844   $49,492   $44,585   $53,541   $53,523   $53,463   $54,202   $54,055   $54,845  
Personal income per member of labor force1    21,859 20,471 30,910 42,325   55,311   54,779   62,802   72,669   76,486   79,004   79,645   78,146  
Total school expenditures per capita of total
   population
  113 241 277 358 648   1,159   1,190   1,471   1,752   1,947   2,000   2,030   2,026  
National income per capita1    9,755 9,706 14,569 18,811   25,314   27,890   33,199   38,347   41,551   42,810   42,131   40,333  
Current expenditure per pupil in ADA6,12,13    606 1,098 1,366 1,925 2,767   4,682   6,342   8,500   9,466   10,650   10,974   11,243   11,339  
Total expenditure per pupil in ADA13,14   727 1,374 1,640 2,383 3,474   5,479   6,953   9,468   10,996   12,349   12,757   13,063   13,141  
National income per pupil in ADA13    55,912 57,695 97,536 102,999   121,567   163,932   216,777   244,261   267,333   276,889   274,962   265,406  
Current expenditure per day per pupil in
   ADA6,13,15
  3.8 6.3 7.8 10.7 15.6   26.2   35.5     49.1       62.8   63.4  
Total expenditure per day per pupil in ADA13   4.5 8.0 9.3 13.4 19.5   30.6   39.0     57.0       73.0   73.4  
—Not available.
1 Data on population and labor force are from the Census Bureau, and data on personal income and national income are from the Bureau of Economic Analysis, U.S. Department of Commerce. Population data through 1900 are based on total population from the decennial census. From 1909-10 to 1959-60, population data are total population, including armed forces overseas, as of July 1. Data for later years are for resident population that excludes armed forces overseas.
2 Data for 1869-70 through 1959-60 are school year enrollment. Data for later years are fall enrollment.
3 Data for 1870-71.
4 Estimated by the National Center for Education Statistics.
5 Prior to 1919-20, data are for the number of different persons employed rather than number of positions.
6 Prior to 1919-20, includes interest on school debt.
7 Because of the modification of the scope of "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools," data for 1959-60 and later years are not entirely comparable with prior years.
8 Beginning in 1969-70, includes capital outlay by state and local school building authorities.
9 Includes summer schools, community colleges, and adult education. Beginning in 1959-60, also includes community services, formerly classified with "current expenditures for elementary and secondary schools."
10 Excludes community colleges and adult education.
11 Prior to 1959-60, average includes supervisors, principals, teachers, and other nonsupervisory instructional staff. Data for 1959-60 and later years are estimated by the National Education Association.
12 Excludes current expenditures not allocable to pupil costs.
13 "ADA" means average daily attendance in elementary and secondary schools.
14 Expenditure figure is the sum of current expenditures allocable to pupil costs, capital outlay, and interest on school debt.
15 Per-day rates derived by dividing annual rates by average length of term.
16 Constant dollars based on the Consumer Price Index, prepared by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, adjusted to a school-year basis.
NOTE: Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Beginning in 1959-60, data include Alaska and Hawaii. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Annual Report of the United States Commissioner of Education, 1869-70 through 1909-10; Biennial Survey of Education in the United States, 1919-20 through 1949-50; Statistics of State School Systems, 1959-60 and 1969-70; Statistics of Public Elementary and Secondary School Systems, 1979-80; Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education, FY 1980; Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), "Public School Questionnaire," 1999-2000 and 2007-08; Common Core of Data (CCD), "State Nonfiscal Survey of Public Elementary/Secondary Education," 1989-90 through 2009-10, and "National Public Financial Survey," 1989-90 through 2008-09. U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, retrieved August 18, 2011, from http://www.census.gov/popest/national/asrh/2009-nat-res.html. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of Economic Analysis, retrieved August 18, 2011, from http://www.bea.gov/iTable/iTable.cfm?ReqID=9&step=1. U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics, retrieved August 18, 2011, from http://data.bls.gov/pdq/SurveyOutputServlet. (This table was prepared February 2012.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
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