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Table 19. Student use of computers, by level of enrollment, age, and student and school characteristics: 1993, 1997, and 2003
Student and school characteristic 1993 1997 2003
Total Elementary and secondary1 College2 Total Elementary and secondary1 College2 Total Elementary and secondary1 College2
Total Under 5 years old 5 to 9 years old 10 to 14 years old 15 years old or over
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
  Percent of students using computers at school
Total 59.0 (0.32) 60.1 (0.38) 54.7 (0.71) 68.8 (0.27) 70.4 (0.32) 62.9 (0.60) 83.8 (0.20) 83.5 (0.24) 42.6 (1.14) 80.1 (0.45) 90.3 (0.32) 91.2 (0.35) 84.9 (0.41)
Sex                                                    
Male 59.4 (0.44) 59.9 (0.53) 57.4 (1.04) 70.1 (0.37) 71.0 (0.44) 66.3 (0.88) 83.7 (0.28) 83.4 (0.34) 43.5 (1.57) 79.7 (0.64) 90.1 (0.45) 91.8 (0.47) 85.3 (0.60)
Female 58.7 (0.45) 60.5 (0.54) 52.4 (0.96) 67.6 (0.38) 69.9 (0.46) 60.2 (0.81) 83.8 (0.28) 83.5 (0.35) 41.5 (1.66) 80.7 (0.64) 90.6 (0.45) 90.5 (0.53) 84.6 (0.55)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity                                                    
White 61.6 (0.37) 63.8 (0.45) 54.0 (0.81) 71.1 (0.32) 73.9 (0.38) 62.1 (0.70) 85.0 (0.24) 84.9 (0.30) 41.1 (1.44) 82.5 (0.56) 92.4 (0.37) 91.9 (0.43) 85.0 (0.49)
Black 51.5 (0.98) 50.6 (0.98) 57.0 (2.54) 66.3 (0.74) 66.1 (0.75) 66.8 (1.78) 82.7 (0.56) 82.5 (0.67) 49.4 (3.18) 78.5 (1.30) 88.0 (0.95) 89.9 (1.01) 83.8 (1.25)
Hispanic 52.3 (1.50) 52.3 (1.16) 52.1 (4.06) 61.5 (0.89) 61.3 (0.69) 62.6 (2.38) 80.3 (0.60) 79.8 (0.71) 39.5 (3.22) 75.6 (1.27) 86.8 (1.01) 88.5 (1.10) 83.0 (1.50)
Other 59.0 (2.24) 57.7 (2.50) 62.7 (4.20) 65.3 (1.32) 65.6 (1.45) 64.6 (2.56) 83.3 (0.77) 81.7 (1.01) 48.9 (4.78) 76.3 (1.89) 86.1 (1.54) 94.1 (1.20) 87.6 (1.30)
                                                     
Family income3                                                    
Less than $5,000 51.2 (1.32) 48.1 (1.50) 62.4 (2.73) 62.1 (1.21) 61.6 (1.41) 63.4 (2.36) 80.9 (1.87) 79.5 (2.31) 42.4 (9.47) 78.3 (3.82) 86.9 (3.39) 86.5 (4.37) 83.8 (3.12)
$5,000 to $9,999 53.3 (1.06) 53.1 (1.17) 54.3 (2.51) 63.5 (1.02) 61.9 (1.14) 70.4 (2.20) 84.4 (1.43) 82.4 (1.74) 49.2 (7.71) 77.8 (3.30) 91.3 (2.18) 88.3 (3.04) 90.1 (2.35)
$10,000 to $14,999 56.4 (1.03) 56.7 (1.13) 55.1 (2.50) 66.2 (0.96) 66.4 (1.06) 65.2 (2.26) 81.7 (1.37) 80.0 (1.61) 50.1 (7.20) 74.1 (3.11) 84.6 (2.41) 90.4 (2.40) 88.0 (2.48)
$15,000 to $19,999 58.1 (1.18) 59.4 (1.30) 52.3 (2.77) 65.9 (1.10) 66.5 (1.21) 63.2 (2.72) 81.3 (1.57) 79.8 (1.84) 26.6 (7.08) 77.0 (3.27) 89.1 (2.38) 89.2 (3.09) 86.7 (2.92)
$20,000 to $24,999 56.4 (1.07) 56.3 (1.18) 56.6 (2.58) 66.9 (0.99) 67.5 (1.10) 64.3 (2.24) 81.3 (1.41) 80.3 (1.61) 43.7 (7.03) 73.0 (3.00) 88.9 (2.16) 92.6 (2.31) 85.3 (2.81)
$25,000 to $29,999 60.0 (1.13) 61.9 (1.25) 52.4 (2.61) 68.5 (1.01) 70.4 (1.11) 61.2 (2.37) 81.9 (1.32) 81.3 (1.48) 35.6 (7.03) 78.0 (2.66) 87.0 (2.21) 90.8 (2.21) 84.4 (2.90)
$30,000 to $34,999 59.1 (1.08) 61.3 (1.20) 50.5 (2.46) 67.6 (0.97) 71.0 (1.05) 53.9 (2.31) 82.2 (1.33) 82.5 (1.46) 40.1 (7.16) 78.5 (2.67) 90.6 (1.86) 88.8 (2.59) 80.9 (3.17)
$35,000 to $39,999 60.7 (1.11) 63.3 (1.21) 49.0 (2.67) 69.0 (0.98) 71.1 (1.08) 60.4 (2.35) 87.1 (1.17) 87.5 (1.30) 54.8 (7.43) 85.2 (2.37) 94.0 (1.53) 90.4 (2.48) 85.7 (2.69)
$40,000 to $49,999 59.3 (0.94) 60.8 (1.04) 53.1 (2.12) 70.5 (0.79) 72.6 (0.85) 60.9 (1.99) 83.5 (1.08) 84.2 (1.18) 47.1 (6.20) 80.0 (2.29) 90.8 (1.56) 90.3 (1.94) 80.4 (2.63)
$50,000 to $74,999 62.6 (0.73) 64.9 (0.82) 55.0 (1.58) 71.7 (0.57) 74.2 (0.63) 63.2 (1.28) 83.8 (0.71) 84.0 (0.80) 35.7 (3.64) 80.5 (1.53) 92.6 (0.94) 92.4 (1.21) 83.1 (1.56)
$75,000 or more 64.6 (0.90) 67.0 (1.04) 58.2 (1.78) 72.1 (0.60) 75.1 (0.68) 63.9 (1.25) 85.6 (0.57) 85.6 (0.65) 39.2 (2.98) 85.3 (1.15) 92.7 (0.81) 93.2 (0.96) 85.8 (1.16)
                                                     
Control of school                                                    
Public 60.2 (0.34) 61.6 (0.40) 54.0 (0.80) 70.2 (0.28) 72.1 (0.33) 62.3 (0.68) 85.2 (0.21) 85.4 (0.25) 47.7 (1.61) 80.5 (0.48) 90.5 (0.34) 91.2 (0.36) 84.6 (0.46)
Private 52.1 (0.85) 49.8 (1.10) 57.3 (1.52) 60.7 (0.73) 58.6 (0.96) 65.2 (1.27) 75.4 (0.60) 70.5 (0.82) 37.1 (1.61) 77.5 (1.33) 89.1 (1.09) 90.5 (1.36) 86.1 (0.85)
  Percent of students using computers at home
Total 27.0 (0.28) 24.5 (0.33) 36.2 (0.65) 45.1 (0.29) 42.8 (0.34) 53.2 (0.62) 70.7 (0.24) 67.6 (0.30) 49.9 (1.16) 62.5 (0.55) 71.6 (0.49) 74.3 (0.54) 81.6 (0.44)
Sex                                                    
Male 27.4 (0.39) 24.3 (0.45) 40.1 (0.99) 45.2 (0.40) 43.2 (0.48) 53.7 (0.93) 70.1 (0.35) 66.8 (0.43) 50.2 (1.59) 62.5 (0.77) 70.2 (0.70) 73.4 (0.76) 83.6 (0.63)
Female 26.6 (0.39) 24.7 (0.47) 33.0 (0.87) 44.9 (0.40) 42.5 (0.49) 52.8 (0.83) 71.2 (0.34) 68.3 (0.43) 49.6 (1.69) 62.6 (0.79) 73.0 (0.69) 75.3 (0.77) 80.0 (0.60)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity                                                    
White 32.8 (0.35) 30.8 (0.42) 39.2 (0.76) 54.9 (0.35) 53.9 (0.43) 58.2 (0.72) 80.1 (0.27) 78.3 (0.34) 59.6 (1.43) 74.6 (0.64) 81.8 (0.54) 84.5 (0.57) 85.4 (0.49)
Black 10.9 (0.59) 8.7 (0.54) 22.7 (2.01) 21.1 (0.64) 19.1 (0.62) 31.0 (1.75) 50.2 (0.74) 46.2 (0.88) 31.7 (2.96) 41.6 (1.55) 50.8 (1.46) 49.6 (1.67) 67.5 (1.59)
Hispanic 10.4 (0.90) 7.9 (0.62) 25.0 (3.31) 21.1 (0.74) 18.3 (0.54) 38.8 (2.40) 51.1 (0.76) 47.5 (0.88) 25.8 (2.88) 41.7 (1.46) 52.5 (1.48) 55.7 (1.72) 72.5 (1.79)
Other 28.7 (2.00) 25.8 (2.16) 36.0 (3.99) 49.1 (1.38) 46.5 (1.52) 56.3 (2.66) 74.6 (0.91) 71.3 (1.19) 57.5 (4.73) 61.6 (2.16) 75.7 (1.90) 83.9 (1.88) 83.1 (1.48)
                                                     
Family income3                                                    
Less than $5,000 9.7 (0.76) 4.3 (0.59) 28.3 (2.43) 22.6 (1.04) 15.2 (1.04) 43.7 (2.43) 44.1 (2.36) 29.8 (2.62) 20.5 (7.74) 29.9 (4.24) 29.5 (4.58) 34.2 (6.07) 75.2 (3.65)
$5,000 to $9,999 8.0 (0.56) 4.2 (0.46) 25.0 (2.08) 15.8 (0.77) 9.3 (0.68) 42.9 (2.39) 47.0 (1.97) 36.6 (2.20) 31.0 (7.14) 30.7 (3.66) 41.3 (3.82) 40.1 (4.65) 77.7 (3.27)
$10,000 to $14,999 11.4 (0.64) 6.7 (0.56) 33.4 (2.26) 18.4 (0.78) 13.6 (0.77) 39.7 (2.32) 47.0 (1.77) 39.3 (1.96) 36.4 (6.93) 32.8 (3.33) 43.2 (3.31) 42.9 (4.03) 75.2 (3.30)
$15,000 to $19,999 15.1 (0.84) 11.2 (0.82) 31.0 (2.44) 20.7 (0.94) 16.5 (0.95) 41.2 (2.77) 48.3 (2.02) 40.8 (2.25) 16.5 (5.95) 33.4 (3.67) 49.1 (3.82) 48.4 (4.97) 74.6 (3.73)
$20,000 to $24,999 16.8 (0.79) 13.6 (0.80) 31.0 (2.27) 30.5 (0.97) 26.2 (1.04) 47.5 (2.34) 53.1 (1.80) 46.6 (2.02) 27.1 (6.29) 41.1 (3.33) 52.5 (3.43) 53.9 (4.39) 77.8 (3.29)
$25,000 to $29,999 21.1 (0.92) 19.1 (0.99) 29.0 (2.28) 34.6 (1.03) 32.0 (1.13) 45.0 (2.42) 59.0 (1.69) 54.7 (1.89) 40.6 (7.21) 47.7 (3.21) 59.5 (3.22) 61.9 (3.72) 78.3 (3.30)
$30,000 to $34,999 24.1 (0.92) 22.6 (1.02) 29.7 (2.15) 38.7 (1.01) 36.1 (1.11) 49.2 (2.32) 64.2 (1.66) 61.5 (1.87) 41.4 (7.19) 54.7 (3.23) 64.9 (3.04) 72.9 (3.66) 76.1 (3.43)
$35,000 to $39,999 27.1 (0.99) 24.9 (1.08) 36.1 (2.44) 44.1 (1.06) 42.6 (1.17) 50.5 (2.40) 70.0 (1.60) 67.8 (1.83) 49.0 (7.46) 63.0 (3.23) 71.9 (2.91) 74.6 (3.66) 78.5 (3.16)
$40,000 to $49,999 32.2 (0.87) 31.6 (0.98) 34.4 (1.92) 50.6 (0.86) 50.4 (0.95) 51.7 (2.04) 75.9 (1.25) 73.4 (1.43) 54.6 (6.18) 68.9 (2.65) 77.5 (2.24) 78.2 (2.70) 86.6 (2.26)
$50,000 to $74,999 43.0 (0.74) 42.9 (0.84) 43.5 (1.52) 61.7 (0.62) 62.2 (0.70) 59.9 (1.30) 81.3 (0.75) 79.5 (0.88) 58.9 (3.74) 74.9 (1.67) 83.8 (1.33) 86.5 (1.56) 87.8 (1.36)
$75,000 or more 56.1 (0.92) 58.1 (1.08) 50.9 (1.74) 74.2 (0.59) 77.2 (0.66) 65.8 (1.23) 88.6 (0.51) 87.6 (0.61) 66.1 (2.89) 85.3 (1.15) 91.0 (0.89) 94.1 (0.90) 91.7 (0.92)
                                                     
Control of school                                                    
Public 25.3 (0.29) 23.0 (0.34) 34.5 (0.73) 43.2 (0.31) 40.9 (0.37) 52.4 (0.70) 69.3 (0.27) 66.3 (0.33) 41.1 (1.58) 60.4 (0.59) 70.1 (0.52) 73.1 (0.57) 80.9 (0.50)
Private 37.4 (0.80) 35.0 (1.03) 42.5 (1.45) 56.1 (0.75) 56.1 (0.97) 56.1 (1.32) 78.3 (0.57) 75.6 (0.77) 59.3 (1.63) 77.3 (1.34) 84.7 (1.26) 89.3 (1.43) 84.1 (0.90)
  Percent of students using computers at home for school work
Total 14.8 (0.22) 12.0 (0.25) 25.0 (0.59) 28.6 (0.26) 24.8 (0.30) 42.5 (0.61) 53.6 (0.27) 47.2 (0.32) 7.5 (0.61) 26.2 (0.50) 60.9 (0.53) 68.6 (0.57) 76.0 (0.48)
Sex                                                    
Male 14.7 (0.31) 11.4 (0.34) 28.2 (0.91) 28.3 (0.37) 24.7 (0.42) 43.3 (0.92) 51.8 (0.38) 45.6 (0.45) 7.5 (0.83) 25.4 (0.69) 58.5 (0.75) 66.7 (0.81) 77.1 (0.72)
Female 14.8 (0.32) 12.5 (0.36) 22.4 (0.77) 28.9 (0.37) 24.9 (0.43) 41.9 (0.82) 55.4 (0.37) 48.9 (0.47) 7.6 (0.89) 27.1 (0.72) 63.4 (0.75) 70.8 (0.82) 75.2 (0.65)
                                                     
Race/ethnicity                                                    
White 18.0 (0.29) 15.1 (0.33) 27.4 (0.70) 35.0 (0.34) 31.3 (0.40) 47.0 (0.72) 60.4 (0.33) 54.1 (0.42) 7.3 (0.76) 29.1 (0.67) 70.5 (0.64) 78.9 (0.65) 79.8 (0.55)
Black 5.7 (0.44) 4.3 (0.39) 13.4 (1.64) 12.5 (0.51) 10.4 (0.48) 22.8 (1.59) 39.8 (0.73) 34.6 (0.84) 8.2 (1.75) 22.5 (1.32) 43.7 (1.45) 44.8 (1.66) 62.2 (1.65)
Hispanic 5.6 (0.68) 3.6 (0.42) 17.8 (2.92) 12.5 (0.60) 9.8 (0.42) 29.2 (2.24) 38.3 (0.74) 33.5 (0.83) 6.7 (1.65) 20.2 (1.19) 42.6 (1.47) 48.9 (1.73) 66.7 (1.89)
Other 15.8 (1.61) 12.4 (1.63) 24.5 (3.57) 33.6 (1.31) 29.3 (1.39) 45.3 (2.67) 57.2 (1.03) 49.4 (1.31) 10.3 (2.91) 26.8 (1.97) 60.9 (2.16) 79.1 (2.08) 77.8 (1.65)
                                                     
Family income3                                                    
Less than $5,000 6.6 (0.64) 2.4 (0.45) 21.1 (2.20) 15.1 (0.89) 8.0 (0.79) 35.5 (2.35) 36.5 (2.29) 19.4 (2.27) 4.2 (3.83) 14.4 (3.25) 22.7 (4.21) 30.4 (5.88) 73.8 (3.72)
$5,000 to $9,999 4.7 (0.44) 1.5 (0.28) 18.8 (1.88) 10.4 (0.65) 4.2 (0.47) 36.5 (2.32) 36.5 (1.90) 24.1 (1.96) 4.0 (3.01) 14.0 (2.75) 32.3 (3.62) 34.1 (4.49) 72.8 (3.49)
$10,000 to $14,999 7.2 (0.52) 3.0 (0.38) 27.1 (2.14) 11.4 (0.64) 6.7 (0.56) 32.4 (2.22) 36.9 (1.71) 27.1 (1.78) 14.3 (5.04) 14.4 (2.49) 34.6 (3.18) 36.8 (3.93) 72.2 (3.42)
$15,000 to $19,999 8.5 (0.65) 5.6 (0.60) 20.5 (2.12) 13.2 (0.79) 8.5 (0.72) 36.0 (2.70) 37.2 (1.95) 27.4 (2.04) 0.7 (1.36) 10.8 (2.42) 40.2 (3.75) 42.9 (4.92) 71.5 (3.87)
$20,000 to $24,999 9.7 (0.62) 6.3 (0.57) 24.5 (2.11) 19.4 (0.83) 15.0 (0.84) 37.1 (2.26) 40.5 (1.77) 31.9 (1.89) 8.2 (3.89) 18.9 (2.65) 40.7 (3.38) 48.8 (4.40) 73.4 (3.50)
$25,000 to $29,999 10.3 (0.69) 7.5 (0.66) 21.4 (2.06) 21.9 (0.90) 18.4 (0.94) 35.7 (2.33) 43.4 (1.70) 36.9 (1.84) 8.3 (4.05) 18.0 (2.47) 48.9 (3.28) 55.2 (3.81) 72.2 (3.58)
$30,000 to $34,999 12.9 (0.72) 10.8 (0.75) 20.8 (1.91) 24.4 (0.89) 20.3 (0.93) 40.5 (2.28) 46.8 (1.73) 41.8 (1.89) 8.8 (4.13) 20.4 (2.61) 55.4 (3.17) 64.1 (3.95) 69.0 (3.73)
$35,000 to $39,999 15.2 (0.80) 12.9 (0.83) 24.6 (2.20) 26.5 (0.94) 22.8 (0.99) 41.7 (2.37) 50.9 (1.75) 45.5 (1.96) 7.0 (3.82) 25.9 (2.93) 58.4 (3.19) 66.7 (3.96) 71.8 (3.46)
$40,000 to $49,999 17.1 (0.70) 15.4 (0.76) 23.3 (1.71) 30.1 (0.79) 28.3 (0.86) 38.5 (1.99) 56.9 (1.44) 51.6 (1.62) 12.9 (4.16) 26.3 (2.52) 67.6 (2.51) 71.4 (2.95) 79.0 (2.70)
$50,000 to $74,999 23.1 (0.63) 21.4 (0.70) 28.7 (1.38) 39.3 (0.62) 36.7 (0.70) 48.2 (1.32) 60.9 (0.94) 55.0 (1.09) 4.8 (1.63) 30.2 (1.77) 71.6 (1.62) 81.0 (1.79) 82.4 (1.58)
$75,000 or more 30.2 (0.85) 29.5 (1.00) 32.0 (1.63) 48.3 (0.67) 47.3 (0.78) 51.3 (1.30) 68.2 (0.75) 62.8 (0.89) 6.5 (1.51) 36.2 (1.56) 83.6 (1.15) 90.0 (1.14) 85.7 (1.16)
                                                     
Control of school                                                    
Public 14.1 (0.24) 11.7 (0.26) 24.1 (0.66) 27.9 (0.28) 24.5 (0.32) 41.9 (0.69) 53.4 (0.29) 47.8 (0.35) 8.0 (0.87) 25.4 (0.53) 59.2 (0.56) 67.5 (0.60) 75.1 (0.55)
Private 18.5 (0.65) 13.8 (0.75) 28.5 (1.33) 32.6 (0.70) 26.9 (0.87) 44.6 (1.32) 54.7 (0.69) 43.3 (0.89) 7.1 (0.85) 32.3 (1.50) 76.5 (1.48) 83.3 (1.73) 79.3 (1.00)
1 Includes students enrolled in prekindergarten through grade 12, ages 3 and above.
2 Includes students enrolled at the undergraduate and postbaccalaureate levels.
3 Excludes persons whose income data were not available.
NOTE: Race categories exclude persons of Hispanic ethnicity. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Current Population Survey (CPS), October 1993, October 1997, and October 2003, unpublished tabulations. (This table was prepared May 2005.)

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