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Table 127. Average reading scale scores and percentage distribution of 9-, 13-, and 17-year-olds, by amount of reading for school, frequency of reading for fun, and time spent doing homework and watching TV/video: Selected years, 1984 through 2008
Time spent on reading and homework 9-year-olds 13-year-olds 17-year-olds
1984 1994 1999 2004 2008 1984 1994 1999 2004 2008 1984 1994 1999 2004 2008
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16
  Average scale score
Pages read daily in school
   and for homework
                                                           
5 or fewer 208 (0.9) 203 (2.3) 202 (1.8) 206 (1.5) 210 (1.1) 250 (0.8) 249 (1.7) 249 (2.0) 245 (1.4) 250 (1.2) 273 (0.8) 271 (1.9) 273 (2.7) 269 (1.4) 271 (1.3)
6-10 215 (1.0) 214 (1.7) 212 (1.7) 217 (1.4) 219 (1.3) 261 (0.6) 261 (1.4) 262 (1.7) 257 (1.1) 258 (1.2) 287 (0.9) 284 (2.1) 285 (1.7) 283 (1.5) 284 (1.4)
11-15 220 (1.4) 217 (2.3) 221 (2.4) 222 (1.6) 224 (1.4) 264 (1.0) 266 (1.8) 263 (2.1) 263 (1.5) 263 (1.1) 294 (0.9) 288 (1.9) 292 (2.1) 290 (2.0) 290 (1.6)
16-20 215 (1.4) 209 (2.9) 214 (2.0) 220 (1.4) 225 (1.5) 263 (1.1) 263 (2.3) 264 (2.6) 266 (1.9) 267 (1.6) 296 (1.1) 298 (2.8) 292 (2.9) 293 (1.6) 296 (1.5)
More than 20 215 (1.6) 217 (2.4) 217 (2.1) 218 (1.1) 226 (1.2) 261 (1.5) 261 (2.0) 265 (2.0) 261 (1.6) 267 (1.4) 300 (1.2) 304 (2.2) 302 (1.9) 298 (1.9) 303 (1.3)
                                                             
Frequency of reading for fun                                                            
Almost every day 214 (1.1) 215 (2.3) 215 (2.4) (†) 225 (1.2) 264 (1.4) 272 (3.2) 272 (3.2) (†) 274 (1.4) 297 (1.5) 302 (4.2) 301 (4.9) (†) 302 (1.3)
Once or twice a week 212 (1.7) 214 (3.1) 215 (2.6) (†) 225 (1.3) 255 (1.4) 255 (3.1) 263 (3.2) (†) 264 (1.1) 290 (1.7) 286 (4.1) 289 (2.9) (†) 291 (1.7)
Once or twice a month 204 (3.3) 213 (5.8) 211 (4.2) (†) 221 (1.7) 255 (2.1) 255 (5.7) 260 (3.7) (†) 261 (1.3) 290 (1.8) 286 (4.5) 286 (4.8) (†) 288 (1.3)
A few times a year 197 (4.2) (†) (†) (†) 212 (2.0) 252 (3.6) 252 (5.4) 253 (4.4) (†) 254 (1.3) 279 (2.7) 281 (8.2) 283 (4.4) (†) 287 (1.5)
Never or hardly ever 198 (2.7) 193 (3.9) 195 (3.3) (†) 211 (1.2) 239 (2.5) 237 (5.1) 242 (5.3) (†) 247 (0.9) 269 (2.4) 258 (5.2) 262 (5.0) (†) 269 (1.1)
                                                             
Time spent on homework
   yesterday
                                                           
No homework assigned 212 (1.0) 213 (2.0) 210 (1.9) 215 (1.5) 219 (1.7) 254 (1.0) 250 (1.7) 251 (2.0) 248 (1.7) 251 (1.2) 276 (0.8) 273 (2.3) 275 (2.3) 268 (1.6) 272 (1.3)
Didn't do assignment 199 (2.3) 200 (4.3) 204 (4.4) 194 (3.0) 201 (2.6) 247 (1.7) 243 (5.6) 249 (4.2) 245 (2.1) 242 (2.4) 287 (1.4) 285 (2.1) 282 (3.1) 277 (1.7) 284 (1.7)
Less than 1 hour 217 (0.8) 212 (1.4) 214 (1.5) 219 (1.2) 223 (0.9) 261 (0.6) 261 (1.3) 262 (1.2) 258 (1.2) 260 (0.9) 290 (0.9) 288 (1.6) 291 (2.3) 286 (1.2) 288 (1.1)
1 to 2 hours 216 (1.4) 214 (3.0) 215 (3.2) 218 (1.9) 222 (1.6) 267 (0.8) 268 (1.7) 269 (1.6) 266 (1.4) 269 (1.2) 296 (0.8) 297 (1.7) 296 (2.0) 294 (1.5) 295 (1.1)
More than 2 hours 201 (1.9) 193 (6.1) 197 (3.5) 198 (3.6) 207 (3.1) 264 (1.2) 270 (2.4) 269 (3.0) 259 (2.3) 277 (1.9) 303 (1.4) 306 (3.1) 300 (2.8) 300 (2.4) 306 (2.2)
                                                             
TV/video watched on
   school day
                                                           
None 212 (3.4) 212 (4.8) 221 (4.6) (†) 223 (3.0) 264 (2.7) 270 (5.1) 265 (6.0) (†) 267 (3.0) 300 (1.6) 308 (3.4) 300 (2.8) (†) 292 (2.4)
1 hour or less 217 (1.5) 216 (1.8) 218 (2.1) (†) 225 (1.2) 269 (1.1) 270 (1.5) 270 (1.6) (†) 266 (1.2) 300 (1.2) 299 (2.0) 298 (2.0) (†) 293 (1.2)
2 hours 222 (1.1) 219 (2.1) 221 (1.7) (†) 229 (1.1) 268 (0.8) 268 (1.4) 268 (1.6) (†) 266 (1.1) 295 (0.9) 292 (1.8) 292 (2.1) (†) 290 (1.1)
3 hours 220 (1.2) 218 (2.2) 218 (2.3) (†) 227 (1.3) 264 (0.7) 262 (1.4) 263 (1.5) (†) 262 (1.3) 288 (1.0) 284 (2.0) 282 (2.3) (†) 284 (1.3)
4 hours 219 (1.0) 212 (1.8) 214 (2.4) (†) 223 (1.4) 262 (0.9) 254 (2.2) 254 (2.4) (†) 255 (1.5) 284 (1.0) 276 (4.1) 273 (2.2) (†) 276 (2.3)
5 hours 214 (1.4) 209 (2.7) 208 (3.0) (†) 219 (2.2) 257 (1.0) 250 (3.0) 253 (3.2) (†) 255 (2.6) 277 (1.5) 269 (4.0) 275 (3.8) (†) 273 (2.4)
6 hours or more 199 (0.8) 192 (2.7) 191 (1.7) (†) 205 (1.2) 245 (1.0) 234 (3.1) 238 (1.8) (†) 238 (1.4) 269 (1.5) 256 (3.7) 256 (5.2) (†) 256 (2.3)
  Percentage distribution
Pages read daily in school
   and for homework
                                                           
5 or fewer 36 (0.8) 28 (1.4) 28 (1.4) 25 (0.9) 25 (0.9) 27 (0.7) 26 (0.9) 23 (1.0) 25 (0.8) 26 (0.8) 21 (0.8) 21 (1.2) 23 (1.4) 31 (0.9) 30 (0.9)
6-10 25 (0.4) 26 (0.6) 24 (0.9) 20 (0.5) 20 (0.5) 34 (0.5) 31 (0.9) 31 (1.1) 25 (0.7) 24 (0.6) 26 (0.6) 25 (0.9) 24 (0.8) 24 (0.6) 23 (0.5)
11-15 14 (0.4) 14 (0.5) 15 (0.7) 14 (0.6) 14 (0.5) 18 (0.4) 17 (0.6) 18 (0.8) 16 (0.5) 17 (0.5) 18 (0.3) 18 (0.6) 17 (0.6) 15 (0.5) 16 (0.5)
16-20 13 (0.4) 14 (0.9) 14 (0.7) 13 (0.6) 14 (0.6) 11 (0.2) 13 (0.5) 13 (0.7) 12 (0.5) 13 (0.4) 14 (0.5) 13 (0.6) 14 (0.8) 11 (0.5) 12 (0.4)
More than 20 13 (0.5) 17 (1.0) 19 (1.0) 29 (1.0) 28 (0.8) 11 (0.5) 14 (0.8) 16 (1.0) 21 (0.7) 22 (0.9) 21 (0.9) 23 (1.5) 22 (1.2) 19 (0.9) 19 (0.7)
                                                             
Frequency of reading for fun                                                            
Almost every day 53 (1.0) 58 (1.6) 54 (1.6) (†) 48 (0.7) 35 (1.0) 32 (1.8) 28 (1.7) (†) 26 (0.7) 31 (0.8) 30 (2.6) 25 (1.7) (†) 20 (0.6)
Once or twice a week 28 (0.8) 25 (1.5) 26 (1.5) (†) 23 (0.6) 35 (1.2) 32 (2.1) 36 (1.7) (†) 25 (0.6) 33 (1.1) 31 (1.9) 28 (2.7) (†) 22 (0.5)
Once or twice a month 7 (0.6) 5 (0.6) 6 (0.6) (†) 8 (0.3) 14 (0.8) 14 (1.7) 17 (1.6) (†) 13 (0.4) 17 (0.5) 15 (1.5) 19 (1.7) (†) 17 (0.5)
A few times a year 3 (0.3) 3 (0.6) 4 (0.7) (†) 8 (0.4) 7 (0.5) 10 (1.2) 10 (1.2) (†) 12 (0.4) 10 (0.5) 12 (1.5) 12 (1.4) (†) 16 (0.5)
Never or hardly ever 9 (0.5) 9 (0.8) 10 (0.8) (†) 14 (0.6) 8 (0.6) 12 (1.7) 9 (1.4) (†) 24 (0.7) 9 (0.6) 12 (1.4) 16 (2.4) (†) 24 (0.6)
                                                             
Time spent on homework
   yesterday
                                                           
No homework assigned 35 (1.3) 32 (2.1) 26 (1.6) 23 (1.5) 18 (1.3) 22 (0.7) 23 (1.4) 24 (1.2) 20 (1.2) 23 (1.2) 22 (0.9) 23 (1.4) 26 (1.0) 26 (1.0) 28 (0.8)
Didn't do assignment 4 (0.3) 4 (0.4) 4 (0.3) 4 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 4 (0.2) 6 (0.6) 5 (0.4) 7 (0.3) 7 (0.3) 11 (0.3) 11 (0.6) 13 (0.7) 15 (0.6) 12 (0.4)
Less than 1 hour 41 (1.0) 48 (1.7) 53 (1.4) 55 (1.2) 60 (1.2) 36 (0.6) 34 (1.0) 37 (1.4) 42 (0.8) 43 (1.2) 26 (0.4) 27 (0.9) 26 (1.0) 29 (0.7) 27 (0.5)
1 to 2 hours 13 (0.4) 11 (0.7) 12 (0.7) 13 (0.6) 12 (0.5) 29 (0.5) 28 (1.0) 26 (1.0) 24 (0.7) 21 (0.7) 27 (0.5) 26 (1.2) 23 (0.8) 21 (0.7) 22 (0.5)
More than 2 hours 6 (0.2) 4 (0.4) 5 (0.5) 6 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 9 (0.3) 9 (0.7) 8 (0.8) 8 (0.5) 6 (0.4) 13 (0.5) 13 (0.9) 12 (0.9) 10 (0.6) 10 (0.5)
                                                             
TV/video watched on
   school day
                                                           
None 3 (0.2) 2 (0.2) 4 (0.8) (†) 4 (0.3) 2 (0.2) 3 (0.3) 4 (0.6) (†) 5 (0.3) 5 (0.3) 6 (0.8) 6 (0.3) (†) 6 (0.3)
1 hour or less 14 (0.3) 23 (1.0) 24 (0.9) (†) 24 (0.6) 12 (0.4) 20 (1.0) 22 (0.8) (†) 25 (0.7) 25 (0.5) 31 (0.9) 34 (0.9) (†) 33 (0.6)
2 hours 16 (0.4) 23 (0.7) 21 (0.9) (†) 18 (0.5) 23 (0.5) 27 (0.7) 29 (0.8) (†) 25 (0.5) 26 (0.3) 26 (0.8) 26 (0.9) (†) 27 (0.6)
3 hours 15 (0.3) 16 (0.5) 14 (0.6) (†) 13 (0.4) 23 (0.4) 22 (0.8) 20 (0.9) (†) 18 (0.5) 20 (0.3) 18 (0.8) 17 (0.7) (†) 16 (0.5)
4 hours 12 (0.2) 11 (0.5) 9 (0.4) (†) 9 (0.4) 17 (0.4) 12 (0.7) 11 (0.6) (†) 10 (0.4) 12 (0.3) 9 (0.6) 8 (0.5) (†) 8 (0.4)
5 hours 9 (0.3) 6 (0.4) 6 (0.4) (†) 6 (0.3) 10 (0.3) 7 (0.4) 5 (0.3) (†) 5 (0.3) 6 (0.2) 5 (0.5) 4 (0.4) (†) 4 (0.2)
6 hours or more 30 (0.7) 20 (0.8) 22 (1.2) (†) 26 (0.8) 13 (0.4) 10 (0.9) 9 (0.6) (†) 13 (0.4) 6 (0.2) 5 (0.4) 5 (0.6) (†) 6 (0.4)
—Not available.
†Not applicable.
‡Reporting standards not met.
NOTE: The NAEP reading scores have been evaluated at certain performance levels. Scale ranges from 0 to 500. Students scoring 150 (or higher) are able to follow brief written directions and carry out simple, discrete reading tasks. Students scoring 200 are able to understand, combine ideas, and make inferences based on short uncomplicated passages about specific or sequentially related information. Students scoring 250 are able to search for specific information, interrelate ideas, and make generalizations about literature, science, and social studies materials. Students scoring 300 are able to find, understand, summarize, and explain relatively complicated literary and informational material. Includes public and private schools. Excludes persons not enrolled in school and students who were unable to be tested due to limited proficiency in English or due to a disability. Beginning in 2004, data are for a revised assessment format that provides accommodations for students with disabilities and English language learners. Detail may not sum to totals because of rounding. Some data have been revised from previously published figures. Standard errors appear in parentheses.
SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), NAEP Trends in Academic Progress, 1996 and 1999; and 2004 and 2008 NAEP Long-Term Trend Reading Assessments, retrieved June 24, 2009, from the Long-Term Trend NAEP Data Explorer (http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/). (This table was prepared June 2009.)
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National Center for Education Statistics - http://nces.ed.gov
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